Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 8 Issue 5

Determinants and Spatial Distribution of Obesity among Women of Childbearing Age in the Democratic Republic of Congo : Analysis Based on Data from the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey

André Ngombe Kaseba1, Éric Mukomena Sompwe1,3, Nowa Mutangala2, Paul Mawaw1,3, Albert Mwembo Tambwe1,3, Mala Ali Mapatano4

1School of Public Health, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo
2Ruashi Mining, Department of Public Health, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo
3Faculty of Medicine, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo
4School of Public Health, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

*Corresponding Author: André Ngombe Kaseba, School of Public Health, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

Received: February 02, 2024; Published: April 01, 2024


Introduction: Good nutritional security is part of the fundamental rights of individuals to food, to health and constitutes the foundation of their good health and well-being. On the other hand, obesity affects all countries with limited resources, the DRC is not spared. Ensuring good health for women of childbearing age would lead to better pregnancy outcomes and healthy newborns. Our work aims to analyze the determinants andthe spatial distribution of obesity in women aged 15-49 years in the DRC.

Methods: We carried out a secondary analysis of data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of the DRC, carried out in 2013-2014. This was a cross-sectional survey, national in scope, with a level of regional representativeness. Our study concerned non-pregnant women aged 15 to 49. The determinants were identified from a multilevel logistic regression. Spatial disparities were identified by two detection approaches, Moran's local index and Kulldorff's statistic.

Results: The prevalence of obesity was 4%. Regarding the determinants, the effect of age on women's BMI shows that for each unit increase in age, the tendency to be obese is multiplied by 2.4 (95% CI [192%; 317%], p-value < 0.001). Women with husbands with primary education have a 54% (95% CI [21%; 99%], p value < 0.05) reduced risk of being obese compared to those with husbands with no level of education . Women from rich households have a risk of being obese multiplied by 5.7 (95% CI [247%; 1346%], p value < 0.001) compared to those from very poor households.LMoran's statistic was - 0.142 (p = 0.217) showing the absence of spatial correlation for 3 provinces: Lomami, Tshopo, North Kivu. TheKulldorff's statistic shows a non-significant cluster for obesity (p = 0.237, with a radius of 31.82 km).

Conclusion: The spatial distribution of malnutritionconfirms that in women of childbearing age, obesity is a clustered phenomenon with a random spatial pattern in the DRC.We have identified the main determinants of obesity that are demographic and socioeconomic.Therefore, the fight against obesity remains multidisciplinary and it is important to multiply targeted preventive actions in the fight against overnutrition in this important segment of women aged 15-49 years of the Congolese population.

Keywords: Déterminants; Spatial distribution; Women; Obesity; DRC


  1. MPSMRM MSP and ICF International. “Second demographic and health survey in the DRC” (2014): 696.
  2. Akeresola RA and Gayawan E. “Analysis of the spatial patterns of malnutrition among women in Nigeria with a Bayesian structured additive model”. Geo journal (2018): 1-12.
  3. Sixty-sixth session of the WHO Regional Committee for Africa, Addis Ababa, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (2016): 131.
  4. Black RE., et al. “Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries”. Lancet 382 (2013): 427-457.
  5. WHO/FAO. “Diet, Nutrition, and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases”. Geneva (2003): 149.
  6. Biswas T., et al. “Current progress and future directions in addressing the double burden of malnutrition among women in South and Southeast Asian countries”. Current Developments in Nutrition 7 (2019): 26.
  7. Lee SC., et al. “Levels and correlates of nutritional status of women of reproductive age in rural Bangladesh”. Public Health Nutrition 16 (2018): 3037-3047.
  8. Arzel B., et al. “Malnutrition and social inequalities”. Publish Health7 (2018): 1093–1099.
  9. Amugsi DA., et al. “Prevalence and temporal trends of overweight and obesity in urban women: analysis of demographic and health survey data”. BMJ open 10 (2017).
  10. Neupane S and Prakash K. “Overweight and obesity among women: analysis of demographic and health survey data from 32 Sub-Saharan African Countries”. BMC Public Health1 (2016): 30.
  11. Amugsi DA., et al. “Prevalence and time trends in overweight and obesity among urban women: an analysis of demographic and health surveys data from 24 African countries, 1991-2014”. BMJ Open10 (2017): 12.
  12. Doku DT and Neupane S. “Double burden of malnutrition: rising overweight and obesity and underweight trends among Ghanaian women”. BMC Public Health 15 (2015): 670.
  13. Ferede A., et al. “The prevalence of malnutrition and its associated risk factors among women of reproductive age in Ziway Dugda district, Arsi Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia”. Public Health 152 (2017): 1-8.
  14. Dickson AA., et al. “Correlates of the double burden of malnutrition among women: an analysis of cross sectional survey data from sub-Saharan Africa”. BMJ Open7 (2019): 13.
  15. Akseer N., et al. “Geospatial inequalities and determinants of nutritional status among women and children in Afghanistan: An observational study”. Lancet 4 (2018): 447-459.
  16. Adebowale AS., et al. “Wealth and under-nourishment among married women in two impoverished nations: evidence from Burkina Faso and Democratic Republic of Congo”. BMC Public Health 8 (2015): 10-34.
  17. Mtambo OP. “Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Childhood Malnutrition in Republic of Congo”. International Journal of Statistics and Applications4 (2018): 153-166.
  18. Khan MMH., et al. “Levels, Trends and Disparities in Public-Health-Related Indicators among Reproductive-Age Women in Bangladesh by Urban-Rural and Richest-Poorest Groups (1993-2011)”. Plosone 9 (2018): 11.
  19. Ng M., et al. “Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013”. Lancet 9945 (2014): 766-781.
  20. Ramesh P and Jareena S. “Overweight Exceeds Underweight among Women in Kerala: An Analysis of Trends and Determinants”. Journal of Human Ecology 2 (2018): 93-103.
  21. WHO/Global Fund. Development of a funding proposal (2016): 70.
  22. Uzma I and Kousar P. “Malnutrition and its Associated Risk Factors among Women of Reproductive Age in Rural Community of Lahore”. International Journal of Medical Research and Health Sciences 3 (2019): 173-178.
  23. Datanet/DRC. “Democratic Republic of the Congo”. Country sheet, PopulationData (2019).
  24. Bank AD. Economic prospects in the. “Democratic Republic of Congo”. African Development Bank - Building today, a better Africa tomorrow (2019).
  25. World Bank. “Democratic Republic of the Congo - Overview”. World Bank, Library Catalog (2019).
  26. Hawkes C., et al. “Double-duty actions: seizing program and policy opportunities to address malnutrition in all its forms”. Lancet 19 (2019): 32506-32511.
  27. Mohsena M., et al. “Maternal nutritional status (as measured by height, weight and BMI) in Bangladesh: trends and socio-economic association over the period 1996 to 2007”. Public health nutrition, 2015 September; 19 (8): 1438-1445.
  28. Liu J., et al. “A spatially explicit assessment of current and future hotspots of hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa in the context of global change”. Global and Planetary Change4 (2008): 222-235.
  29. Abul HM., et al. “Prevalence and determinants of malnutrition among reproductive aged women of rural Bangladesh”. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health22 (2010): 110-117.
  30. Abarca GL., et al. “Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies into 128 9 million children, adolescents, and adults”. Lancet10113 (2017): 2627-2642.
  31. Dadi AF and Desyibelew HD. “Undernutrition and its associated factors among pregnant mothers in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia”. Plos One4 (2019): 11.
  32. Barankanira E. “Spatial analyzes of public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa: examples of HIV/AIDS and malnutrition”. HAL (2017): 267.
  33. Gewa CA., et al. “Geographic distribution and socio-economic determinants of women's nutritional status in Mali households”. Public Health Nutrition 16 (2013): 1575-1585.
  34. FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations”. Nutritional Status Indicators (2007): 8-29.


Citation: André Ngombe Kaseba., et al. “Determinants and Spatial Distribution of Obesity among Women of Childbearing Age in the Democratic Republic of Congo : Analysis Based on Data from the 2013-2014 Demographic and Health Survey".Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 8.5 (2024): 06-18.


Copyright: © 2024 André Ngombe Kaseba., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.316

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US