Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 7 Issue 11

The Agrarian and Nutritional Potential of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench): A Review

Aditi Sewak1*, Neerja Singla1 and Gurnaz Singh Gill2

1Department of Food and Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2Assistant Professor (Processing and Food Engineering), Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Patiala, Punjab, India

*Corresponding Author: Aditi Sewak, Department of Food and Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Received: September 15, 2023; Published: October 04, 2023

Abstract

Rapidly changing environment and increasing global temperature is fostering the need for sustainable agriculture. Promoting cultivation of alternative crop like sorghum which has lesser carbon footprint (5.94 Tg CE/ha) than wheat and rice (23.8 Tg CE/ha) and promotes resource conservation. Withal balanced nutrition and health benefits viz. cancer prevention, lowering cholesterol and fat absorption, delaying gastric emptying, sorghum possesses vital nutrients like proteins (11.5%), minerals (0.45-270mg/100g), vitamins, fiber (2.76%) and antioxidant phenolics (445 to 2,850 μg/g) and condensed tannins, carotenoids and 3-deoxyanthocyanidins (anthocyanin). Considered a prebiotic and being gluten free, foods can be developed using sorghum efficiently to cater the one percent of the world’s population affected by celiac disease to combat deficiencies. Processing techniques such as soaking, blanching, germination, milling, decortication, etc. can bring about desired physical and chemical changes and enhance functionality of these grains. Thus, sorghum has the potential to contribute towards food and nutritional security while keeping in view sustainable agricultural practices

Keywords: Carbon Footprint; Phenolic Compounds; Gluten-Free; Tannins; Processing

References

  1. (2020).
  2. Muthamilarasan M and Prasad M. “Small millets for enduring food security amidst pandemics”. Trends in Plant Science 26 (2020): 33-40.
  3. Gopichand SA. “Development of technology for post-harvest management and processing technology for tender sweet sorghum (Hurda)”. D. Dissertation, Vasantrao Naik Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth, Parbhani, India (2018).
  4. Leelavathi T. “Estimation of in vitro protein and starch digestibility in selected processed products of sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L). Moench)”. Sc. Dissetation, Acharaya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India (2012).
  5. “Sorghum production”. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations (2020).
  6. “Agriculture”. Statistical yearbook India (2016).
  7. Jain N., et al. “Greenhouse gases emission from soils under major crops in northwest India”. Science of the Total Environment 542 (2016): 551-561.
  8. Sah D and Devakumar AS. “The carbon footprint of agricultural crop cultivation in India”. Carbon Management 9 (2018): 213-225.
  9. Prasad PV and Staggenborg SA. “Growth and production of sorghum and millets”. Soils, Plant Growth and Crop Production, Oxford, UK: EOLSS Publishers Co. Ltd. (2009): 1-27.
  10. Beeckman F., et al. “Nitrification in agricultural soils: impact, actors and mitigation”. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 50 (2018): 166-173.
  11. Gorakh SS. “Molecular characterization of rabi sorghum genotypes using SSR markers”. Dissertation, Mahatma Phule Krishi Viyapeeth, Rahuri, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra (2017).
  12. Paterson A., et al. “The sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses”. Nature 457 (2009): 551-556.
  13. Real CV., et al. “Nutritional value of African indigenous whole grain cereals millet and Sorghum”. Nutrition and Food Science 4 (2017):1-5.
  14. Taylor JRN and Duodo KG (Ed.). “Grain structure and grain chemical composition. Sorghum and Millets: Chemistry, Technology and Nutritional Attributes” UK: Woodhead Publishing and AACC International Press (2019): 85-129.
  15. Chhikara N., et al. “Exploring the nutritional and phytochemical potential of sorghum in food processing for food security”. Nutrition and Food Science 49 (2018): 318-332.
  16. Mohapatra D., et al. “Effect of different processing conditions on proximate composition, anti-oxidants, anti-nutrients and amino acid profile of grain sorghum”. Food Chemistry 271(2019):129-135.
  17. “Sorghum grain, Sorghum flour, whole-grain”. Food Data Central, U.S. Department of Agriculture (2020).
  18. Ramírez AHC., et al. “Effect of the nixtamalization process on the protein bioaccessibility of white and red sorghum flours during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion”. Food Research International 134 (2020): 109234.
  19. Kumar A., et al. “Millets: a solution to agrarian and nutritional challenges”. Agriculture and Food Security 7 (2018):2-15.
  20. Mabelebele M., et al. “Chemical composition and nutritive value of South African sorghum varieties as feed for broiler chickens”. South African Journal of Animal Science 45 (2015): 206-213.
  21. Pfeiffer BK and Rooney WL. “Inheritance of pericarp color, nutritional quality, and grain composition traits in black sorghum”. Crop Science 56 (2016):164-172.
  22. Sorour MA., et al. “Changes of total phenolics, tannins, phytate and antioxidant activity of two sorghum cultivars as affected by processing”. Journal of Food and Dairy Sciences 8 (2017): 267-274.
  23. Vargas-Solorzano JW., et al. “Physicochemical properties of expanded extrudates from colored sorghum genotypes”. Food Research International 55 (2014):37-44.
  24. Abd El-Moneim MRA., et al. “Effect of soaking, cooking, germination and fermentation processing on proximate analysis and mineral content of three white sorghum varieties (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)”. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici 40 (2012): 92-98.
  25. Tasie MM and Gebreyes BG. “Characterization of nutritional, antinutritional, and mineral contents of thirty-five sorghum varieties grown in Ethiopia”. International Journal of Food Science (2020): 1-11.
  26. Rathore S., et al. “Millet grain processing, utilization and its role in health promotion: a review”. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Science 5 (2016): 318-329.
  27. Balcerek AP., et al. “Bioactive compounds in sorghum”. European Food Research and Technology 245 (2018): 1075-1080.
  28. Cardoso LDM., et al. “Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): nutrients, bioactive compounds, and potential impact on human health”. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 57 (2017): 372-390.
  29. Afify AEM., et al. “Biochemical changes in phenols, flavonoids, tannins, vitamin E, β–carotene and antioxidant activity during soaking of three white sorghum varieties”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2 (2012): 203-209.
  30. Dykes L. et al. “Flavonoid composition of lemon-yellow sorghum genotypes”. Food Chemistry 128 (2011): 173-179.
  31. Cardoso LDM., et al. “Tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): diversity and stability to the heat treatment”. Food Chemistry 172 (2015): 900-908.
  32. Shen S., et al. “Phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities differ significantly among sorghum grains with different applications”. Molecules 23 (2018): 23051203.
  33. Ofosu FK., et al. “Flavonoids in decorticated sorghum grains exert antioxidant, antidiabetic and antiobesity activities”. Molecules 25 (2020): 2854.
  34. Omoikhoje SO and Obasoyo DO. “Nutrient and anti-nutrient components of red type sorghum indigenous to Ekpoma area of Edo state as influenced by soaking techniques”. Annual Research and Review in Biology 27 (2018): 1-8.
  35. Nour AAM., et al. “Effect of processing methods on nutritional value of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cultivar”. American Journal of Food Science and Health 4 (2015): 104-108.
  36. Siddiq AA and Prakash J. “Antioxidant properties of digestive enzyme treated fibre-rich fractions from wheat, finger millet, pearl millet and sorghum: a comparative evaluation”. Cogent Food and Agriculture 1 (2015): 1-15.
  37. Herrman DA., et al. “Stability of 3-deoxyanthocyanin pigment structure relative to anthocyanins from grains under microwave assisted extraction”. Food Chemistry 333 (2020): 127494.
  38. Li M., et al. “Triacylglycerols compositions, soluble and bound phenolics of red sorghums, and their radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities”. Food Chemistry 340 (2021): 128123.
  39. Palacios CE., et al. “Contents of tannins of cultivars of sorghum cultivated in Brazil, as determined by four quantification methods”. Food Chemistry 337 (2021): 127970.
  40. Singh A., et al. “In vitro nutrient digestibility and antioxidative properties of flour prepared from sorghum germinated at different conditions”. Journal of Food Science and Technology 56 (2019): 3077-3089.
  41. Abdelhalim TS., et al. “Nutritional potential of wild sorghum: grain quality of Sudanese wild sorghum genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)”. Food Science and Nutrition 7 (2019): 1529-1539.
  42. Anunciação PC., et al. “Comparing sorghum and wheat whole grain breakfast cereals: sensorial acceptance and bioactive compound content”. Food Chemistry 221 (2017): 984-989.
  43. Xiong Y., et al. “Comparison of the phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and volatile compounds of different sorghum varieties during tea processing”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 100 (2020): 978-985.
  44. Ng'uni D., et al. “Genetic diversity in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) accessions of Zambia as revealed by simple sequence repeats (SSR)”. Hereditas 148 (2012): 52-62.
  45. Rashwan AK., et al. “Potential processing technologies for developing sorghum-based food products: an update and comprehensive review”. Trends in Food Science and Technology 110 (2021): 168-182.
  46. Saleh ASM., et al. “Millet grains: nutritional quality, processing, and potential health benefits”. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 12 (2013): 281-295.
  47. Kayode APP., et al. “Fate of phytochemicals during malting and fermentation of type III tannin sorghum and impact on product biofunctionality”. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 61 (2013): 1935-1942.
  48. Eltayeb LFEF., et al. “Effect of soaking on nutritional value of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.)”. International Journal of Science and Research 6 (2017): 1360-1365.
  49. Xiong Y., et al. “Sorghum grain: from genotype, nutrition, and phenolic profile to its health benefits and food applications”. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 18 (2019): 2025-2046.
  50. Akillioglu HG and Karakaya S. “Changes in total phenols, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activities of common beans and pinto beans after soaking, cooking, and in vitro digestion process”. Food Science and Biotechnology 19 (2010): 633-639.
  51. Vashishth A., et al. “Cereal phytases and their importance in improvement of micronutrients bioavailability”. 3 Biotech 7 (2017): 42.
  52. Coulibaly A., et al. “Phytic acid in cereal grains: Structure, healthy or harmful ways to reduce phytic acid in cereal grains and their effects on nutritional quality”. American Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilization Technology 1 (2011): 1-22.
  53. Ertaş N and Türker S. “Bulgur processes increase nutrition value: possible role in in-vitro protein digestibility, phytic acid, trypsin inhibitor activity and mineral bioavailability”. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51 (2014): 1401-1405.
  54. Singh AK., et al. “Enhancement of attributes of cereals by germination and fermentation: a review”. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 55 (2013): 1575-1589.
  55. Nkhata SG., et al. “Fermentation and germination improve nutritional value of cereals and legumes through activation of endogenous enzymes”. Food Science and Nutrition 6 (2018): 2446-2458.
  56. Garzόn AG and Drago SR. “Free a-amino acids, c-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), phenolic compounds and their relationships with antioxidant properties of sorghum malted in different conditions”. Journal of Food Science and Technology 55 (2018): 3188-3198.
  57. Ocheme OB., et al. “Effect of germination on functional properties and degree of starch gelatinization of sorghum flour”. Journal of Food Research 4 (2015): 159-165.
  58. Saravanabavan SN., et al. “Effect of popping on sorghum starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index”. Journal of Food Science and Technology 50 (2011): 387-392.
  59. Azad MOK., et al. “Effect of different processing methods on the accumulation of the phenolic compounds and antioxidant profile of broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) flour”. Foods 8 (2019): 230.
  60. Amadou I., et al. “Millets: nutritional composition, some health benefits and processing - a review”. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 25 (2013): 501-558.
  61. Lloyd SK., et al. “Modulation of colonic microbiota populations by polyphenolic containing sorghum brans may protect against development of metabolic disease (Abstr)”. The FASEB Journal 30 (2016): 683.
  62. Muthamilarasana M., et al. “Exploration of millet models for developing nutrient rich graminaceous crops”. Plant Science 242 (2016): 89-97. 
  63. Barros F., et al. “Interaction of tannins and other sorghum phenolic compounds with starch and effects on in vitro starch digestibility”. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 60 (2012): 11609-11617.
  64. Amoako DB and Awika JM. “Resistant starch formation through intrahelical V-complexes between polymeric proanthocyanidins and amylose”. Food Chemistry 285 (2019): 326-333.
  65. Stefoska-Needham A., et al. “Flaked sorghum biscuits increase postprandial GLP-1 and GIP levels and extend subjective satiety in healthy subjects”. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 60 (2016): 1118-1128.
  66. Kim JS., et al. “The inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts from sorghum, foxtail millet and proso millet on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities”. Food Chemistry 124 (2011): 1647-1651.
  67. Chung IM., et al. “Antidiabetic effects of three Korean sorghum phenolic extracts in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats”. Food Research International 44 (2011): 127-132.
  68. Links MR., et al. “Sorghum condensed tannins encapsulated in kafirin microparticles as a nutraceutical for inhibition of amylases during digestion to attenuate hyperglycaemia”. Journal of Functional Foods 12 (2015): 55-63.
  69. Kim J and Park Y. “Anti-diabetic effect of sorghum extract on hepatic gluconeogenesis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats”. Nutrition and Metabolism 9 (2012): 1-7.
  70. Johari A., et al. “Development and organoleptic evaluation of pearl millet and rice based gluten free upma for celiac disease patients”. Annals of Agri-Bio Research 20 (2015): 143-144.
  71. Wu G., et al. “Improvement of in vitro and cellular antioxidant properties of Chinese steamed bread through sorghum addition”. LWT-Food Science and Technology 91 (2018): 77-83.
  72. Girard AL and Awika JM. “Sorghum polyphenols and other bioactive components as functional and health promoting food ingredients”. Journal of Cereal Science 84 (2018): 112-124.
  73. Vanamala JKP., et al. “Grain and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) serves as a novel source of bioactive compounds for human health”. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 58 (2018): 2867-2881.
  74. Moraes ÉA., et al. “Sorghum genotype may reduce low-grade inflammatory response and oxidative stress and maintains jejunum morphology of rats fed a hyperlipidic diet”. Food Research International 49 (2012): 553-559.
  75. González-Montilla FM., et al. “Isolation and identification of phase II enzyme inductors obtained from black Shawaya sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] bran”. Journal of Cereal Science 55 (2012): 126-131.
  76. Awika JM., et al. “Comparative antioxidant, antiproliferative and phase II enzyme inducing potential of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) varieties”. LWT-Food Science and Technology 42 (2009): 1041-1046.
  77. Yang L., et al. “Sorghum 3-deoxyanthocyanins possess strong phase II enzyme inducer activity and cancer cell growth inhibition properties”. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 57 (2009): 1797-1704.
  78. Tian Y., et al. “High molecular weight persimmon tannin is a potent antioxidant both ex vivo and in vivo. Food Research International 45 (2012): 26-30.
  79. Shim TJ., et al. “Toxicological evaluation and anti-inflammatory activity of a golden gelatinous sorghum bran extract”. Bioscence, Biotechnology and Biochemistry 77 (2013): 697-705.
  80. Makanjuola SBL., et al. “Apigenin and apigeninidin isolates from the Sorghum bicolor leaf targets inflammation via cyclo-oxygenase-2 and prostaglandin-E2 blockade”. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases and Treatment 21 (2018): 1487-1495.
  81. Agah S., et al. “Complementary cereals and legumes for health: Synergistic interaction of sorghum flavones and cowpea flavonols against LPS-induced inflammation in colonic myofibroblasts”. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 61 (2017): 28155259.
  82. Funakoshi-Tago M., et al. “Anti-inflammatory activity of structurally related flavonoids, apigenin, luteolin and fisetin”. International Immunopharmacology 11 (2011): 1150-1159.
  83. Wölfle U., et al. “UVB-induced DNA damage, generation of reactive oxygen species, and inflammation are effectively attenuated by the flavonoid luteolin in vitro and in vivo”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 50 (2011): 1081-1093.
  84. Stefoska-Needham A., et al. “A diet enriched with red sorghum flaked biscuits, compared to a diet containing white wheat flaked biscuits, does not enhance the effectiveness of an energy-restricted meal plan in overweight and mildly obese adults”. Journal of American College of Nutrition 36 (2017): 184-192.

Citation

Citation: Aditi Sewak., et al. “The Agrarian and Nutritional Potential of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench): A Review".Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 7.11 (2023): 02-10.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 Iftekhar Ahmed., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.316

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US