Influence of Breakfast on Mental Ability and Correlation with Protein Intake: A Case-Control Study
Aindrila Das1* and Samir Kumar Ghosh2
1Department of Physiology, Vidyasagar Metropolitan College, Kolkata, India
2Department of Physiology, Syamaprasad College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
*Corresponding Author: Aindrila Das, Department of Physiology, Vidyasagar Metropolitan College, Kolkata, India.
March 20, 2023; Published: April 29, 2023
Mental functions represent the activity status of the brain and are assessed to understand mental ability. In qualitative term, the sum of mental abilities is referred to as ‘intelligence’. A steady blood glucose level is the prerequisite for optimum brain function. Thus the importance of breakfast after a night long fast is immense. Brain tissue consumes additional glucose during challenging mental tasks. The present study assessed mental abilities using ‘Arithmetic Test’ and ‘Matrix Test’ in addition to Academic performance taking two groups of young boys (10-12 yrs.) under given experimental conditions referred to as ‘with breakfast’ and ‘without breakfast’. The results of mental functions with and without breakfast corroborate with earlier reports suggesting a positive correlation of blood glucose with mental ability. The study further confirms a positive correlation of dietary protein intake with mental ability of the study population.
Keywords: Mental Ability; Breakfast; Protein Intake; Logistic Regression
- Deary IJ. “Differences in mental abilities”. BMJ (Clinical Research Edition) 317.7174 (1998): 1701-1703.
- Anwar E. “A Study of Reasoning Ability of Secondary School Students in Relation to Their Intelligence”. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) 20.5 (2015): 29-31.
- Poldrack RA., et al. “Discovering Relations Between Mind, Brain, and Mental Disorders Using Topic Mapping”. PLOS Computational Biology 8.10 (2012): e1002707.
- Colom R., et al. “Human intelligence and brain networks”. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience 12.4 (2010): 489-501.
- Mergenthaler P., et al. “Sugar for the brain: the role of glucose in physiological and pathological brain function”. Trends in Neurosciences 36.10 (2013): 587-597.
- Ciolacu MV and Chraif M. “The Relationship between Blood Glucose Levels and Performance at Cognitive Processing and Motor Coordination Tasks”. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 187 (2015): 777-782.
- Adolphus K., et al. “The effects of breakfast on behavior and academic performance in children and adolescents”. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7 (2013): 425.
- Pollitt E and Mathews R. “Breakfast and cognition: an integrative summary”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67.4 (1998): 804S-813S.
- Huffcutt AI and Culbertson SS. “Interviews. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), APA handbooks in psychology®. APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, Vol. 2. Selecting and developing members for the organization”. American Psychologica Association (2011): 185-203.
- Wenk GL. “An hypothesis on the role of glucose in the mechanism of action of cognitive enhancers”. Psychopharmacology 99 (1989): 431-438.
- CRAFT S., et al. “The effects of hyperglycemia on memory and hormone levels in dementia of the Alzheimer type: A longitudinal study”. Behavioral Neuroscience 107 (1993): 926-940.
- Kumar N., et al. “Kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic scale: Updating income ranges for the year 2012”. Indian Journal of Public Health 56.1 (2012): 103.
- Tabassum N Rao R. “An updated Kuppuswamy’s socio-economic classification for 2017”. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research 7.5 (2017): 365-367.
- McDowell., et al. “National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES, Anthropometry Procedure Manual, CDC (2005).
- National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHANES, Anthropometry Procedure Manual, CDC (2007).
- Gibson RS and Ferguson EL. “International life sciences institute. An interactive 24-Hour recall for assessing the adequacy of iron and zinc intakes in developing countries. Washington, D.C”. International Life Sciences Institute (1999).
- Dietary assessment: a resource guide to method selection and application in low resource settings. FAO. Rome (2018).
- Yunsheng MA., et al. “Number of 24-hour diet recalls needed to estimate energy intake”. Annals of Epidemiology 19.8 (2009): 553-559.
- Bharathi AV., et al. “The development and characteristics of a physical activity questionnaire for epidemiological studies in urban middle class Indians”. Indian Journal of Medical Research 111 (2000): 95-102.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, United Nations University, World Health Organization, eds. Human energy requirements: report of a Joint Fao/Who/Unu expert consultation: Rome, 17-24 October 2001. Rome: food and agricultural organization of the United Nations (2004).
- Judith M Dean., et al. “Measuring Vertical Specialization: The Case of China”. Review of International Economics (2011): 609-625.
- Mather N., et al. “Perceptions and knowledge of preservice and in service teachers about early literacy instruction”. Journal of Learning Disabilities 34.5 (2001): 472-482.
- Raven J. “Manual for Raven’s Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales”. Research supplement no. 1: The 1979 British standardisation of the Standard Progressive Matrices and Mill Hill Vocabulary Scales, together with comparative data from earlier studies in the UK, US, Canada, Germany, and Ireland. Oxford, England: Oxford Psychologists Press/San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation (1981).
- Feng Y., et al. “The application of Student’s t-test in internal quality control of clinical laboratory”. Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine 1.3 (2017): 125-128.
- Francisco de AS e S and Carlos AV de A. “Comparison of means of agricultural experimentation data through different tests using the software”. African Journal of Agricultural Research 11.37 (2016): 3527-3531.
- Bursac Z., et al. “Purposeful selection of variables in logistic regression”. Source Code for Biology and Medicine 3.1 (2008): 17.
- Azari NP. “Effects of glucose on memory processes in young adults”. Psychopharmacology 105 (1991): 521-524.
- Benton D and Owens DS. “Blood glucose and human memory”. Psychopharmacology 113 (1993): 83-88.
- Zahedi H., et al. “Breakfast consumption and mental health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies”. Nutritional Neuroscience (2020): 1-15.
- Begdache L., et al. “Assessment of dietary factors, dietary practices and exercise on mental distress in young adults versus matured adults: A cross-sectional study”. Nutritional Neuroscience 22.7 (2019): 488-498.
- Smith AP. “An investigation of the effects of breakfast cereals on alertness, cognitive function and other aspects of the reported well-being of children”. Nutritional Neuroscience 13.5 (2010): 230-236.
- O'Nei A., et al. “Relationship between diet and mental health in children and adolescents: a systematic review”. American Journal of Public Health 104.10 (2014): e31-e42.
- Molteni R., et al. “A high-fat, refined sugar diet reduces hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor, neuronal plasticity, and learning”. Neuroscience 112.4 (2002): 803-814.
- Jacka FN., et al. “A prospective study of diet quality and mental health in adolescents”. PLoS One 6.9 (2011): e24805.
- McMartin S., et al. “The association between diet quality and internalizing disorders in children”. American Journal of Epidemiology 173 (2011): S289-S289.
- Cormack BE and Bloomfield FH. “Increased protein intake decreases postnatal growth faltering in ELBW babies”. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition 98 (2013): F399-404.
- Stephens BE., et al. “First-week protein and energy intakes are associated with 18-month developmental outcomes in extremely low birth weight infants”. Pediatrics 123.5 (2009): 1337-1343.
- Gardner H. “Frames of Mind: “The Theory of Multiple Intelligences”. New York, NY: Basic Books (1993).
- Mills KL., et al. “Developmental changes in the structure of the social brain in late childhood and adolescence”. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 9 (2014): 123-131.
- Piaget J., et al. “The Child’s Conception of the World”. London: Paladin (1973).
- Mukaka M. “A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research”. Malawi Medical Journal 24.3 (2012): 69-71.