Sarcopenia Dietary Treatment and Adapted Exercise
Alessio Calabrò1* and Claudia Paone2
1University of Magna Graecia of Catanzaro, Degree Course in Motor and Sports Sciences, Italy
*Corresponding Author: Alessio Calabrò, University of Magna Graecia of
Catanzaro, Degree Course in Motor and Sports Sciences, Italy.
February 10, 2023; Published: February 22, 2023
Aging can be defined as the regression of the physiological functions of the human body, which manifests itself with advancing age.
One of the consequences that can cause numerous negative implications during this process is called Sarcopenia.
This phenomenon affects about 20% of the population aged between 65 and 70 years up to 50% in the elderly over 80 years.
The depletion of lean mass already begins after the age of 30 in men and, after the age of 50 in women.
After the seventh decade of age, this loss of functional mass tends to increase exponentially in humans (15% every 10 years).
The progressive decrease in lean body mass can lead, if not adequately contrasted, to a series of consequential disorders which
generate the establishment of a state of increased vulnerability of the elderly to stressful events, which is defined as "frailty".
The causes of the onset of the sarcopenic process are multifactorial. Basically, we know that this complex pathogenic framework
includes the progressive increase in physical inactivity, the increase in intramuscular, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, the
alteration of muscle protein metabolism (proteolysis), the reduced capacity for muscle protein synthesis, as well as a state of chronic
inflammation. In addition to the loss of strength and decreased muscle function that causes postural instability, with consequent risk
of falls and reduction of bone trophism, sarcopenia triggers a much wider spectrum of homeostatic alterations that can modify the
profile metabolic rate of the elderly subject; the reduction of lean mass considerably reduces the basal metabolic rate, the increase
in visceral fat establishes a persistent insulin sensitivity, which in turn is mainly responsible for the development or worsening of
conditions such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and liver disorders.
Furthermore, the aforementioned pathologies are factors that in turn trigger chronic inflammation, if added to the high levels of
circulating insulin, the risk of cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's and vascular dementia increase in elderly subjects.
Sarcopenia is a problem that must be faced with the right countermeasures as it turns out to be, if not adequately treated, a factor
that causes a series of reactions that tend to establish in the elderly the loss of autonomy from a psycho-physical point of view .
Through adequate nutritional support that is able to ensure the right energy intake and a balanced intake of proteins, associated
with adequate exercise, it will be possible to guarantee a positive maintenance of the efficiency of cognitive and physical functions,
essential prerequisites for it to be ensured for the elderly maximum autonomy for an excellent life expectancy.
Keywords: Sarcopenia, Lean Body Mass, Aging
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