Cocoa and Hepatic Health
Rafael Villadiego-Rojas1,2, Gustavo Aroca-Martínez1,2, Andrés
Cadena-Bonfanti1,2, Lil Geraldine Avedaño1,2, Raúl García-Tolosa2,
Lucia Niño-Hernández2, María de los Ángeles Vélez-Verbel1,2, Lía
Correa-Martínez1,2, Javier Rodríguez-Murgas3 and Carlos G Musso1,4
1Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Barranquilla, Colombia
2Nephrology Department, Clínica de la Costa, Barranquilla, Colombia
3Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Sinú, Cartagena, Colombia
4Research Department, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
*Corresponding Author: Carlos G Musso, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud,
Universidad Simón Bolívar, Barranquilla, Colombia and Research Department, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
January 30, 2023; Published: February 20, 2023
Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease involving several systems and has a high occurrence in areas such as the kidney, central nervous system, and vascular and serous structures. Furthermore, SLE poses a significant and increased risk of infections as well as an increase in morbidity and mortality. This increase is due to the presence of risk factors such as the use of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and cytotoxic agents; changes in renal function; leukopenia, hypoalbuminemia; and alterations in both renal function and immunological profile (complement, anti-DNA).
Renal biopsy (RB) is a safe method for obtaining renal tissue for the diagnosis and prognosis of SLE. Although complications, such as hemorrhage, are rare, if they do occur, they usually do so during the first 8-24 hours of the procedure. This diagnostic method is the best tool to diagnose lupus nephritis. Hence, we conducted a study to determine the histological changes in patients with lupus nephritis who were evaluated with consecutive biopsies from 2008 to 2021.
Materials and Methods: An observational, analytical, and retrospective study was conducted using information collected from the RB database. Data on SLE and/or lupus nephritis recorded in this database by Clínica de la Costa uninterruptedly from 2008 to 2021. Patients with a diagnosis of SLE were selected based on at least four diagnostic criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. Those who had undergone renal puncture biopsy according to the consensus criteria of the group of systemic autoimmune diseases of the Spanish Society of Nephrology were selected.
Results: A significant increase was observed in chronicity rates.
Conclusion: Significant progress has been achieved since the publication of the latest management recommendations for lupus nephritis in adults by the leading entities in the field. None of them provide comprehensive, specific, and proactive guidance on the use of repeat RB in the management of patients with lupus nephritis.
Keywords: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Lupus Nephritis; Consecutive Kidney Biopsies
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