Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 7 Issue 2

Assessing the Main Carbohydrate Energy Staple and Meal Frequency by Very Active Manual Workers (VAMW) in Nairobi, Kenya

Mwale, Mary Mabel

Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Cooperatives, Kilimo House, Nairobi, Kenya

*Corresponding Author: Mwale, Mary Mabel, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Cooperatives, Kilimo House, Nairobi, Kenya.

Received: December 23, 2022; Published: January 18, 2023

Abstract

Manual workers expend high energy in the course of their work and have to learn to balance their energy intake with expenditure. The type of food they consume determine how long they can endure labour intensive work and the number of meals they consume per day to remain productive and nutritionally healthy in the long term. Studies on energy requirement for work productivity are limited. The objective of this study was to determine main carbohydrate staple and meal frequency by Very Active Manual Workers (VAMW) in Nairobi, compared to relatively moderately active groups Civil servants (CS) and University students (US). Questionnaires were administered to a total 322 respondent categorized into the three groups: VAMW, (CS) and US. Respondents were asked to state their main carbohydrate staple from a list of 5 commonly consumed foods in Kenya Ugali, rice, chapati, Irish potatoes, bananas, and “others” [foods such as Githeri (mixed maize and beans), cassava, spaghetti, noodles, Sweet potatoes, and bread, among many alternatives]; and the number of meals they consumed per day. Results indicated Ugali (Maize meal) was the main carbohydrate staple consumed by all respondent groups. The meal frequency per day by VAMW was higher compared to CS and US respondents. Only 9% of VAMW consumed two meals a day compared to 33% of CS and 45% of US that reported taking two meals or less per day. None of the VAMW reported skipping a meal or consuming one meal per day, unlike CS and US groups where 3% and 1% respectively skipped or consumed one meal per day. There was a significant difference between the numbers of meals taken per day by VAMW compared to moderately active groups, US and CS; F (0.05, 2,330) = 13.089, p < 0.0001. A pairwise comparison of meal frequency means, using Scheffé's test, indicated a significant difference in number of meals consumed by VAMW and CS, and between VAMW and US, but no significant difference between CS and US pair. Further Post hoc analysis revealed an effect size of 0.23, F (0.05, 2,329); and a final Power (1- err prob) of 0.97. Results indicate choice of main carbohydrate energy staple and meal frequency per day is an important factor in meeting the energy requirements for very active manual workers.

Keywords: “Ugali”; Main Carbohydrate Staple; Meal Frequency; Very Active Manual Workers

References

  1. Kwon DY. “What is Ethnic Food?”. Journal of Ethnic Foods 1 (2015).
  2. Luca F Perry G and Di Rienzo A. “Evolutionary adaptation to dietary changes”. Annual Review of Nutrition 1 (2010): 291-314.
  3. Leslie CA. “The Evolution of Human Nutrition (2013).
  4. Malimi K., et al. “Acceptability Assessment of Ugali Made from Blends of High Quality Cassava Flour and Cereal Flours in the Lake Zone, Tanzania”. Asian Food Science Journal 1 (2018): 1-11.
  5. Breslin AS. “An evolutionary perspective on food and human taste”. Current Biology9 (2013).
  6. Kawamura T., et al. “The factors affecting estimation of carbon content of meals in carbohydrtae counting”. Clinical Pediatric Endocrinology 4 (2015): 153-165.
  7. Government of Kenya. “Kenya Peoples and cultures”. MEAC (2019).
  8. Long, LM. “Cultural politics in culinary tourism with ethnic foods” (2018).
  9. Wanjala W., et al. “Indigenous technical knowledge and formulations of thick (ugali) and thin (uji) porridges consumed in Kenya” 10.12 (2016): 385-396.
  10. Government of Kenya, National Food and Nutrition Security Policy Implementation Framework (2017-2022). Nairobi: Agricultural Information Center (2017).
  11. Jetter K and Cassady D. “The availability and cost of healthiers food alternatives”. American Journal of Preventive Medicine (2006): 38-44.
  12. Kipsang W. “Stern Warning to Millers on Sh 2b Unga Subsidy scheme”. Kenya (2017).
  13. Mbilu S. “Unga Protesters”. Kenya: Citizen TV (2011).
  14. “Unga revolution in Kenya”. Kenya: The New Humanitarian (2011).
  15. Amone C. “We are strong because of our millet bread: Staple fods and the growth of ethnic identities in Uganda”. Trames2 (2014): 159-172.
  16. Cohen L., et al. “Research Methods in Education”. New York (2007).
  17. Tanhoffer RA., et al. “Comparison of methods to assess energy expenditure and physical activity in people with spinal cord injury”. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine 1 (2012): 35-45.
  18. American Diabetes Association and American Dietetics Association. “Exchange lists for meal planning” (2003).
  19. Bluman AG. “Elementary statistics: A Step by Step Approach, sixth edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Education (2014).
  20. Karalus M. “The Creation and Testing of a Scale to Measure the Subjective Experiences of Hunger and Satiety A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA BY” (2011).
  21. Benelam B. “Satiation, Satiety and their effects on eating behaviour”. in Nutrition Bulletin (2009): 126-173.
  22. Snell H. “Satisfying foods: 75 most filling foods for weigSnell H. 2018. “Satisfying Foods: 75 Most Filling Foods for Weight Loss” (2018).
  23. Holt S., et al. “A satiety index of common foods”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 9 (1995): 675-690.
  24. Kanter M. “High-Quality carbobydrates and physical performance”. Nutrition Today 1 (2008): 35-39.

Citation

Citation: Mwale, Mary Mabel. “Assessing the Main Carbohydrate Energy Staple and Meal Frequency by Very Active Manual Workers (VAMW) in Nairobi, Kenya".Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 7.2 (2023): 72-78.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 Mwale, Mary Mabel. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.316

Indexed In





News and Events


Contact US