Nutrient Retention, Carcass and Organ Characteristics of Finisher Broilers
Fed Palm Press Fibre Meal
Juliana Nneka Ikpe1*, Emmanuel Chukwuma Oko1 and Ibukun
1Department of Agricultural Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
2Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic,
Unwana, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Juliana Nneka Ikpe, Department of Agricultural Technology, Akanu Ibiam Federal Polytechnic, Unwana, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
December 14, 2022; Published: January 06, 2023
The quest for ways to solve the present soaring cost of chicken has lead to the exploration into the use of Palm Press Fibre (PPF) to substitute maize in feeding broiler birds. PPF is a high fibre agricultural waste product and high fibre feed ingredients are known to exert negative consequences on the carcass and organ characteristics of broiler birds. This research therefore understudied the nutrient retention, carcass and organ characteristics of finisher broilers fed different substitution rates of maize with Palm Press Fibre Meal (PPFM). A total of 240 ROSS 308 breed of finishing broilers of 28 days post hatch were used for the experiment following a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each treatment group had sixty broiler birds that were replicated three times to obtain twenty birds per replicate. The control diet (TI) contained no PPFM, while T2, T3 and T4 diets contained 10%, 20% and 30% PPFM respectively which represents 16.67, 33.33 and 50% substitution rates of maize. The birds were managed under deep litter system and fed adlibitum for 28 days. After which, the 3 broilers were slaughtered for carcass and organ assessment while another set of 3 broilers were put in a metabolic cage for nutrient retention assessment. Result of the proximate composition showed PPFM contained 12.61% Crude protein, 7.21%Crude fibre, 3.32% Ether extract and 6.87% Ash. The live weight of the broilers were significantly bigger for control and T2 but reduced for T3 and T4. The eviscerated weight in percentage live weight was similar (P > 0.05) for T1, T2 and T3 groups but reduced for T4 group. Also, the thigh and drumstick (%lw) had the highest value for the control which was similar (P > 0.05) with T2 but differed (P<0.05) from T3 and T4 while the value for T3 and T4 were same (P > 0.05) with that of T2. There was a progressive increase in the gizzard size as inclusion rate of PPFM increased in the diets. Crude protein retention was significant (P > 0.05) reduced at T4. It was concluded that substitution of maize with PPFM can cause increase in gizzard size, not toxic to the broilers and protein retention can reduced when the inclusion rate increase to 50%.
Keywords: Carcass; Diet; Finisher Broilers; Palm Press Fibre; Nutrient Retention; Organ
- Ogundipe J. "Maize, soybeans shortage threatens Nigeria’s chicken meat sector amid rising price of feed, farmers lament insecurity". Punch Newspaper (2021):
- Proshare "Fact File on Crude Palm Oil (CPO) in Nigeria, Cote d’Ivoire and ECOWAS” (2019).
- Hafis SM. et al. "Properties of palm pressed fibre for metal forming lubricant applications". Procedia Engineering 68 (2013): 130-137. The Malaysian International Tribology Conference, MITC2013
- Onwudike OC. "Palm Kernel Cake as a feed for Poultry to Diets containing Palm Kernel meal for starter and grower pullet”. Animal Feed and Technology 16 (1986): 187-194.
- Aletor VA., et al. "Equi-protein replacement of fishmeal with soybean meal in the diets for broiler chickens: effect on performance, protein utilization and economic of production". Nigerian Technological Resources 1 (1989): 1-6.
- Scheuermann GN., et al. "Breast muscle development in broiler chicken". Poultry Science 82 (2003): 1648-1658.
- Ayhan F., et al. "Mycotoxins in Poultry". Poultry science. Chapter 4 (2017).
- “Official methods of analysis (18th edition) International Virginia, USA. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2016).
- Okorie KC. "Evaluation of Jacaranda mimosifolia (stan) leaf meal as ingredient in finisher diet: performance, carcass and organ weight characteristics". Animal Production Research Advances 2.1 (2006): 44-46.
- Duncan DB. "Multiple range and multiple F tests". Biometrics 11 (1955): 1-42.
- Bamikole MA and Ikhatua UJ. "Variety diversity effect on the Chemical composition and dry matter degradation characteristics of residue and by-products of oil Palm fruits". Animal Science Journal 3 (2009): 239-249.
- Heuzé V. et al. "Palm Press Fibre. Feedipedia", a program by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO”. Last Updated on May 14 (2015): 35.
- Rhule SWA. "Growth rate and carcass characteristics of pigs fed on diets containing Palm Kernel cake". Animal Fed Science and Technology 16 (1996) :167-172.
- Adesehinuwa AOK. "Utilization of Palm kernel cake as a replacement for maize in diets of growing pigs: `Effect on performance, serum metabolites, nutrient digestibility and cost of feed conversation". Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural science 13 (2007): 593-600.
- Onuh SO. et al. "Responds of broiler chickens to Palm Kernel cake and maize offal mixed in different rations". Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 9:6 (2010): 516-519.
- Preston H and William M. "Eviscerated Yield, Component Parts, and Meat, Skin and Bone Ratios in the Chicken Broiler". Poultry Science 52 (1973): 3382/ps.0520718.
- Acar N., et al. "Breast muscle Development of commercial broilers from hatching to twelve weeks of age" (1993).
- Okeudo NJ., et al. "Growth rate, carcass characteristics and organopletic quality of broiler fed graded levels of Palm kernel cake". International Journal of Poultry Science 5 (2005): 330-333.
- Sese BT., et al. "Effects of graded levels of Full far Palm Kernel Meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Broiler chicks”. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Health care 12 (2014): 19-28.
- Svihus B. “The gizzard: "Function, influence of diet structure and effects on nutrient availability". World's Poultry Science Journal2 (2011): 207-224.
- Suzuki K., et al. "Neurotrophin receptor is a marker for precursors of stellate cells and fibroblasts in mouse fetal liver". Gastroenterology1 (2008): 270-281.
- Ledoux DR., et al. “Fumonisin toxicity in broiler chicks". Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 4 (2014): 330-333.
- Bailey CA., et al. "Cottonseed with a high (+) to (−)-gossypol enantiomer ratio favorable to broiler production". Agric. Food Chem 48 (2000): 5692-5695.
- Oloruntola OD. "Gliricidia Leaf Meal in Broiler Chickens Diet: Effects on Performance, Carcass, and Haemato-biochemical Parameters". Journal of Applied Life Sciences International3 (2018): 1-9.
- Khattak FM., et al. "Enzymes in poultry nutrition". Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 16 (2006): 1-7.
- Sundu B., et al. "Palm kernel meal in broiler diets: Effect on chicken performance and health". World's Poultry Science Journal 62 (2006): 316-325.
- Jiménez-Moreno E., et al. "Effects of type of cereal, heat processing of the cereal, and fiber inclusion in the diet on gizzard pH and nutrient utilization in broilers at different ages". The Journal of Poultry Science88 (2009): 1925-1933.
- A Stipanovic., et al. "Cottonseed with a high (+) to (−)-gossypol enantiomer ratio favorable to broiler production”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry48 (2000): 5692-5695.
- Bailey CA., et al. "Cottonseed with a high (+) to (−)-gossypol enantiomer ratio favorable to broiler production”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 48 (2000): 5692-5695.
- Kwon H., et al. "Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Korean native ducks and commercial meat-type ducks raised under same feeding and rearing conditions". Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 27 (2014): 1638-1643.