Biomechanical Study of the Lumbar Spine: Finite Element Analysis
SEN Zafer1*, SAYAR Ferhat2 and AKKUS Onder2
1Orthopedics and Traumatology Department, Baskent University Konya Training and Research Hospital, Konya, Turkey
2Orthopedics and Traumatology Department, Health Sciences University, Konya City Hospital, Konya, Turkey
*Corresponding Author: SEN Zafer, Orthopedics and Traumatology Department, Baskent University Konya Training and Research Hospital, Konya, Turkey.
September 21, 2022; Published: October 05, 2022
A normal disc is responsible for the flexibility and mobility of an entire spinal segment. Mechanical principles in the anatomy of the spine contribute to physicians in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and in treatment planning. Data such as in vitro, in vivo and finite element (FE) models are used to understand and interpret the mechanism of the spine. In vivo studies help us understand the kinematics and muscle forces that occur in the lumbar spine. It also helps us find disc mechanics, disc injury mechanisms in finite element models and thus contributes to the clinical diagnosis and treatment models of lumbar spine problems. The aim of this study is to estimate the intervertebral disc stress values at L2-L2, L3-4 and L4-L5 levels by applying flexion, extension lateral bending, external rotation forces in the lumbar spine using the finite element. To create a three-dimensional finite element model, the lumbar spine of a healthy 40-year-old male individual was created by computerized tomography scanning. Tomography sections, L2-L5, 65 sections, 0.2 mm thick, were processed and processed into the program. By using the sections, the spine surface model was obtained up to the L2-L5 level. Analysis was performed by applying a force of 1 Nm to the spine in case of flexion. Spinal movements were observed along the L2-L5 vertebrae. In the flexion state, segmental movements observed at L2-3, L3-4, L4-5 vertebral levels were 4.45, 4.01, 3.08 degrees, respectively. During the right side bending, the applied force was 2.32, 2.95 and 2.75 degrees for the L2-3, L3-4, L4-5 vertebrae, respectively. The movements observed in external rotation were observed as 3.35, 3.75 and 2.88 degrees for L2-3, L3-4, L4-5 vertebrae, respectively. When lateral force was applied, the tension in the lumbar spine intervertebral disc was 1.23, 0.65 and 0.73 MPa for L2-3, L3-4, L4-5 intervertebral discs, respectively. When the axial rotation force was applied, 2.54, 2.13 and 2.05 MPa were observed for L2-3, L3-4, L4-5 intervertebral discs, respectively. L2-3 range of motion was found to be more flexible than L4-5. It was concluded that the contribution of the formed ligament structures to the stability was positive, and L4-5 intervertebral discs were more stable during the applied axial rotation movement. The finite element model we created is valuable in that it guides clinicians in terms of diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow-up treatment at a subjective-specific level.
Keywords: Lumbar Spine; Finite Element; Disc; Mechanics; Flexion; Extention
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