Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 9

Tart Cherry Juice Reduces Plasma Triglycerides and CVD Risk Factor, But Does not Affect Indirect Measures of Insulin Resistance, in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized, Crossover Pilot Study

Keith R Martin1*, Jennifer Bopp2 and Lacey Burrell2

1Center for Nutraceutical and Dietary Supplement Research, University of Memphis, Tennessee, United States
2Healthy Lifestyles Research Center, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, United States

*Corresponding Author: Keith R Martin, Center for Nutraceutical and Dietary Supplement Research, University of Memphis, Tennessee, United States.

Received: July 29, 2022; Published: August 23, 2022

Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for men and women globally in both developed and developing countries, thus is a significant health problem. Obesity and overweightness (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), occurring in 67% of the U.S. population, and insulin insensitivity (pre-diabetes) are co-morbidities frequently occurring concomitantly with CVD. Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that polyphenol-rich diets rich in fruits can significantly reduce CVD risk.

Methods: In this randomized, placebo-controlled crossover pilot study, we recruited 10 participants (38.1 ± 12.5 y; 9 females, 2 males) with BMI > 25.0 (32.2 ± 4.6 kg/m2; 5 obese, 5 overweight) to consume 8 fl oz. daily of either 100% tart cherry juice (TCJ) or an alternate placebo beverage, for 4 weeks each with a 2-week intervening washout period. Fasting blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of each arm for measurement of biomarkers of dyslipidemia and glycemia.

Results: Total cholesterol (TC) was not different between treatments (p > 0.05) but plasma triglycerides (TG) and the CVD risk factor ratio TG/HDL-C were statistically decreased 10% and 17%, respectively (p < 0.05) after TCJ consumption. A trend existed for VLDL, which was reduced 15%. LDL-C and HDL-C were not different between treatments. Baseline fasting glucose (FG) and insulin levels were 99 ± 7 mg/dl and 12.8 ± 5.8 uIU/ml, respectively, with half having FG > 100 mg/dL. HOMA, QUICKI, and McAuley indices of insulin resistance were modulated suggesting pre-diabetes, but values were not significantly different between groups at study completion.

Conclusion: Collectively, the data suggest that 100% TCJ can reduce CVD risk by reducing plasma TG and some routinely used risk factors. ratios

 

Keywords: Tart Cherry Juice; Metabolic Syndrome; Insulin Resistance; Triglycerides; Overweight/Obese

References

  1. B Brannick., et al. “Prediabetes as a toxic environment for the initiation of microvascular and macrovascular complications”. Experimental Biology and Medicine 12 (2016): 1323-1331.
  2. MG Saklayen. “The Global Epidemic of the Metabolic Syndrome”. Current Hypertension Reports2. Current Medicine Group LLC (2018).
  3. Edwards CM and Cusi K. “Prediabetes: A worldwide epidemic”. Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America 4 (2016): 751-764.
  4. L Bozzetto., et al. “Polyphenol-rich diets improve glucose metabolism in people at high cardiometabolic risk: a controlled randomised intervention trial”. Diabetologia7 (2015): 1551-1560.
  5. JA Vita. “Polyphenols and cardiovascular disease: effects on endothelial and platelet function”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1 (2005): 292-297.
  6. DS Kelley., et al. “A review of the health benefits of cherries”. Nutrients3 (2018): 1-22.
  7. DS Kelley., et al. “Consumption of bing sweet cherries lowers circulating concentrations of inflammation markers in healthy men and women”. The Journal of Nutrition 4 (2006): 981-986.
  8. EM Seymour., et al. “Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet”. Journal of Medicinal Food 5 (2009): 935-942.
  9. Ghosh D and Scheepens A. “Vascular action of polyphenols”. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 3 (2009): 322-331.
  10. PL Da Luz., et al. “High ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol predicts extensive coronary disease”. Clinics4 (2008): 427-432.
  11. B Jayaprakasam., et al. “Amelioration of obesity and glucose intolerance in high-fat-fed C57BL/6 mice by anthocyanins and ursolic acid in cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 1 (2006): 243-248.
  12. RDRMIBDRJJASCAFG Iswaldi I. “Identification of phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic rooibos extracts (Aspalathus linearis) by HPLC-ESI-MS (TOF/IT)”. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 10 (2011): 3643-3654.
  13. SP Shah K. “Effect of Anthocyanin Supplementations on Lipid Profile and Inflammatory Markers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials”. Cholesterol20 (2018): 1-10.
  14. CYHCLCLYLYLKCY Yang DJ. “Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of polyphenol-rich longan (Dimocarpus longans Lour.) flower water extract in hypercaloric-dietary rats”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 3 (2010).
  15. Kim HY., et al. “The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model”. British Journal of Nutrition 4 (2010): 502-512.
  16. TYSAYAYH Uchiyama S. “Prevention of diet-induced obesity by dietary black tea polyphenols extract in vitro and in vivo”. Nutrition3 (2011): 287-292.
  17. Rosenblatt M and Aviram M. “Pomegranate juice protects macrophages from triglyceride accumulation: inhibitory effect on DGAT1 activity and on triglyceride biosynthesis”. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism1 (2011): 1-9.
  18. LJJJRKSSCSY Bose M. “The major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease in high-fat-fed mice”. The Journal of Nutrition 8 (2008): 1677-1683.
  19. KR Polley., et al. “Tart cherry consumption with or without prior exercise increases antioxidant capacity and decreases triglyceride levels following a high-fat meal”. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 11 (2019): 1209-1218.
  20. Chai SC., et al. “Effects of Tart Cherry Juice on Biomarkers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Older Adults”. Nutrition2 (2019).
  21. APBDERLRLMCJ and B JP. “How can we measure insulin sensitivity/resistance?” Diabetes and Metabolism3 (2011): 179-188.
  22. R Acaso., et al. “Diagnosing Insulin Resistance by Simple quantitative methods in subjects with normal glucose metabolism”. Diabetes Care12 (2003): 3320-3325.
  23. F Zhang., et al. “The association of triglyceride and glucose index, and triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio with prehypertension and hypertension in normoglycemic subjects: A large cross-sectional population study”. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension 7 (2021): 1405-14120.
  24. HGLKHYFY Liu XC. “The Triglyceride-Glucose Index, an Insulin Resistance Marker, Was Non-linear Associated With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in the General Population”. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine 14 (2021): 1-10.
  25. Cherian S., et al. “Antidiabetic effect of a glycoside of pelargonidin isolated from the bark of Ficus bengalensis Linn”. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics 4 (1992): 380-382.
  26. Wolfram S., et al. “TEAVIGO (epigallocatechin gallate) supplementation prevents obesity in rodents by reducing adipose tissue mass”. Annual Review of Nutrition 1 (2005): 54-63.
  27. Wolfram S. “Effects of green tea and EGCG on cardiovascular and metabolic health”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 4 (2007): 373S-388S.
  28. Wolfram S., et al. “Epigallocatechin gallate supplementation alleviates diabetes in rodents”. Journal of Nutrition 10 (2006): 2512-2518.
  29. Desai T., et al. “The effects of Montmorency tart cherry juice supplementation and FATMAX exercise on fat oxidation rates and cardio-metabolic markers in healthy humans”. European Journal of Applied Physiology 12 (2018): 2523-2539.
  30. PG Crepaldi G., et al. “Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and their role in Type 2 diabetes management”. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 30 (2007): 610-614.

Citation

Citation: Keith R Martin., et al. “Tart Cherry Juice Reduces Plasma Triglycerides and CVD Risk Factor, But Does not Affect Indirect Measures of Insulin Resistance, in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized, Crossover Pilot Study". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 6.9 (2022): 67-75.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Keith R Martin., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.316

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is December 15, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US