Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 8

Occupational Exposure to Mycotoxin-Producing Fungi in Respirable and Surface Dust of Farms and Feed Factories Located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: A Pilot Study

Larissa Tuanny Franco1, Tatiana Alves Reis2 and Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira1*

1Departamento de Engenharia de Alimentos, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP, Brazil
2Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil

*Corresponding Author: Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira, Departamento de Engenharia de Alimentos, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP, Brazil.

Received: July 04, 2022; Published: July 11, 2022

Abstract

In the present study, a preliminary investigation was conducted on the occurrence of mycotoxin-producing fungi in respirable air and surface dust from farms (N = 4) and feed factories (N = 3) located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The main genera detected were Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., and Cladosporium sp. Aspergillus sp. was identified in more than 50% of samples analyzed. The values of colony forming units (CFU) were higher in feed factories than in farms, with a maximum of 7.10 Log CFU/m2. In samples of respirable dust, average values were 3.12 Log CFU/m3 in animal feed factories and 2.95 Log CFU/m3 in farms. The study demonstrated that the levels of mycotoxin-producing fungi found in the work environments studied may be of concern to the health of the workers.

Keywords:Fungi; Occurrence; Workplace; Breathable Dust; Settled Dust

References

  1. Karjalainen A., et al. “Incidence of occupational asthma by occupation and industry in Finland”. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 37 (2000): 451-458.
  2. Burch JB., et al. “Endotoxin exposure and inflammation markers among agricultural workers in Colorado and Nebraska”. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 73 (2010): 5-22.
  3. Viegas C., et al. “Fungal contamination in swine: A potential occupational health threat”. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A4-5 (2013): 272-280.
  4. Viegas C., et al. “Environmental impact caused by fungal and particles contamination of Portuguese swine”. Transactions on Biomedicine and Health 16 (2013): 11-23.
  5. Cleave J., et al. “Fractionation of swine barn dust and assessment of its impact on the respiratory tract following repeated airway exposure”. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 73 (2010): 1090-1101.
  6. Harting JR., et al. “Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients have greater systemic responsiveness to ex vivo stimulation with swine dust extract and its components versus healthy volunteers”. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 75 (2012): 1456-1470.
  7. Cote J et al. “Occupational asthma caused by exposure to neurospora in plywood factory worker”. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 48 (1991): 279-282.
  8. Richard JL. “Some major mycotoxins and their mycotoxicoses -an overview”. International Journal of Food Microbiology1-2 (2007): 3-10.
  9. Degen GH. “Tools for investigating workplace-related risks from mycotoxin exposure”. World Mycotoxin Journal 4 (2011): 315-327.
  10. Oliveira CAF and Corrêa B. “Interactive effects between mycotoxins in livestocks”. In: Mycotoxicoses in animals economically important. New York: Nova Science Publishers (2010): 117-129.
  11. Frisvad JC., et al. “Fumonisin and ochratoxin production in industrial Aspergillus niger strains”. Plos One8 (2011): e23496.
  12. Ostry V., et al. “Mycotoxins as human carcinogens-the IARC Monographs classification”. Mycotoxin Research1 (2017): 65-73.
  13. Köszegi T and Poór M. “Ochratoxin A: Molecular interactions, mechanisms of toxicity and prevention at the molecular level”. Toxins4 (2016): 111-125.
  14. Franco LT and Oliveira CAF. “Assessment of occupational and dietary exposures of feed handling workers to mycotoxins in rural areas from São Paulo, Brazil”. Science of the Total Environment 837 (2022): 155763.
  15. Mohamad Asri AA., et al. “Exposure of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in inhalable dust and its respiratory effects among rice millers”. World Journal of Translational Medicine 23 (2020): 60-71.
  16. Ndaw S., et al. “Investigating multi-mycotoxin exposure in occupational settings: a biomonitoring and airborne measurement approach”. Toxins1 (2021): 429.
  17. Viegas C., et al. “Occupational exposures to organic dust in Irish bakeries and a pizzeria restaurant”. Microorganisms1 (2020): 118.
  18. Vincent JH and Mark D. “The basis of dust sampling in occupational hygiene: a critical review”. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene4 (1981): 375-390.
  19. De Hoog GS., et al. “Atlas of clinical fungi. 2nd edition”. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, the Netherlands (2000).
  20. Despot DJ and Klarić MS. “A year-round investigation of indoor airborne fungi in Croatia”. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 65 (2014): 209-218.
  21. Viegas S., et al. “Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 in swine production and possible contamination sources”. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A15 (2013): 944-951.
  22. Viegas C., et al. “Are workers from waste sorting industry really protected by wearing filtering respiratory protective devices? The gap between the myth and reality”. Waste Management 102 (2020): 856-867.
  23. Viegas C., et al. “Accessing indoor fungal contamination using conventional and molecular methods in Portuguese poultries”. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment3 (2014): 1951-1959.
  24. International Agency for Research on Cancer. “IARC Monograph on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk to Humans” 82.171 (2022).
  25. Bulski K and Frączek K. “Mycological air quality at animal veterinary practice”. Rocznik Ochrona Srodowiska 23 (2021): 168-179.
  26. Bragoszewska E. “The dose of fungal aerosol inhaled by workers in a waste-sorting plant in Poland: A case study”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17 (2019): 177.
  27. Saad-Hussein A., et al. “Effects of airborne Aspergillus on serum aflatoxin B1 and liver enzymes in workers handling wheat flour”. Human and Experimental Toxicology1 (2016): 3-9.

Citation

Citation: Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira., et al. “Occupational Exposure to Mycotoxin-Producing Fungi in Respirable and Surface Dust of Farms and Feed Factories Located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: A Pilot Study". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 6.8 (2022): 42-46.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.316

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is October 10, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US