Addition of Lentils and Chickpeas to Yogurt: Effects on Physicochemical, Colorimetric, Microbiological, Rheological and Organoleptic Properties During Refrigeration
Saoussen Bouacida1,2, Mohamed Aroua3*, Hayet Ben Haj Koubaier1,2, Ahmed Snoussi1,2, Ismahen Essaidi4 and Nabiha Bouzouita1,2
1Higher School of Food Industries of Tunis, University of Carthage, Tunisia
2Laboratory of Innovation and Valorization for a Sustainable Food Industry, Higher School of Food Industries of Tunis, University of Carthage, Tunisia
3Higher School of Agriculture of Kef, University of Jendouba, Boulifa, El Kef, Tunisia
4Higher School Agronomy of Chott Mariem, University of Sousse, Tunisia
*Corresponding Author: Mohamed Aroua, Higher School of Agriculture of Kef, University of Jendouba, Boulifa, El Kef, Tunisia.
May 19, 2022; Published: June 17, 2022
In this study, yoghurt fortified with lentil and chickpea germinated or not proteins isolate was manufactured. The effects of the addition of lentil and chickpea proteins isolate on the sensory, physico-chemical, colorimetric, microbiological and rheological properties of yoghurt during storage are studied. Physicochemical analyses have shown that for all yogurt samples, a significant decrease in pH and increasing of TA were observed during the first two weeks after which was not significant. Results show that there is not significant difference of DM values during storage period of the different yoghurt samples. Whey separation (Syneresis) was lower in fortified yogurts with lentil and chickpea proteins isolate as compared with control yoghurt. The colorimetric results showed that the factor L*, a* and b* have no significant difference with each other during 21-day storage period for all samples. Microbial evaluation shows that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms and S. aureus colonies were not found in any of the yogurt samples until the 21st day of storage. Rheologic analysis shows that the control samples exhibited the lowest viscosity and consistency index values. Sensory results have shown that there is not significant difference between sensory scores for all descriptors of yogurt samples fortified or not with leguminous proteins. Yoghurts YCGPI and YLGPI presented sightly highest sensory scores comparing with the other ones. The results of the present study suggest that leguminous proteins fruit can be effectively used as gelling agent in the manufacture yogurt.
Keywords: Yoghurt; Fortified; Lentil; Chickpea; Proteins
- F Benmeziane., et al. “Lentil (Lens culinaris) flour addition to yogurt: Impact on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes during refrigeration storage and microstructure changes”. LWT - Journal of Food Science and Technology 110793 (2021): 1-9.
- WADV Weerathilake., et al. “The evolution, processing, varieties and health benefits of yogurt”. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 4 (2014): 1-10.
- M García-Burgos., et al. “New perspectives in fermented dairy products and their health relevance”. Journal of Functional Foods 104059 (2020).
- A Raymundo., et al. “Optimization of the Composition of Low-Fat Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by White Lupin Protein”. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 8 (2002): 1-8.
- M Abu-Ghoush., et al. “Formulation and fuzzy modeling of emulsion stability and viscosity of a gum-protein emulsifier in a model mayonnaise system”. Journal of Food Engineering 84 (2008): 348-357.
- E Armaforte., et al. “Preliminary investigation on the effect of proteins of different leguminous species (Cicer arietinum, Vicia faba and Lens culinarius) on the texture and sensory properties of egg-free mayonnaise”. LWT - Journal of Food Science and Technology 110341 (2021): 1-6.
- KM Raghunath., et al. “Development of medium fat plant-based mayonnaise using chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and green gram (Vigna radiata) and sensory evaluation using fuzzy logic”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation 11 (2021): 896-901.
- M Rahbari and M Aalami. “A mixture design approach to optimizing low cholesterol mayonnaise formulation prepared with wheat germ protein isolate”. Journal of Food Science and Technology 6 (2015): 3383-3393.
- H Liu., et al. “Rheological, texture and sensory properties of low fat mayonnaise with different fat mimetics”. LWT 40 (2007): 946-954.
- JI Boye., et al. “Comparison of the functional properties of pea, chickpea and lentil protein concentrates processed using ultrafiltration and isoelectric precipitation techniques”. Food Research International 43 (2010): 537-546.
- Y Ladjal-Ettoumi., et al. “Emulsifying properties of legume proteins at acidic conditions: Effect of protein concentration and ionic strength”. LWT 66 (2016): 260-266.
- “Official Methods of Analysis”. 15th edition (1990).
- Z Ghasempour., et al. “Optimisation of probiotic yoghurt production containing Zedo gum”. International Journal of Dairy Technology 1 (2012): 118-125.
- Z Tarakçi and E Kuçukoner. “Physical, Chemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Some Fruit-Flavored Yoghurt”. Tarakçı ve Küçüköner2 (2003): 10-14.
- JG Rodríguez-Carpena., et al. “Avocado by-products as inhibitors of color deterioration and lipid and protein oxidation in raw porcine patties subjected to chilled storage”. Meat Science 2 (2011): 166-173.
- A Alexopoulos., et al. “Experimental effect of ozone upon the microbial flora of commercially produced dairy fermented products”. International Journal of Food Microbiology 246 (2017): 5-11.
- J Shahbandari., et al. “Effect of Storage Period on Physicochemical, Textural, Microbial and Sensory Characteristics of Stirred Soy Yogurt”. International Journal of Farming and Allied Sciences 6 (2016): 476-484.
- MB Guler-Akın and MS Akın. “Effects of cysteine and different incubation temperatures on the microflora, chemical composition and sensory characteristics of bio-yogurt made from goat’s milk”. Food Chemistry 100 (2007): 788-793.
- P Cayot., et al. “Improvement of rheological properties of firm acid gels by skim milk heating is conserved after stirring”. Journal of Dairy Research 70 (2003): 423-431.
- H Barakat and MFY Hassan. “Chemical, Nutritional, Rheological, and Organoleptical Characterizations of Stirred Pumpkin-Yoghurt”. Food Science and Nutrition 8 (2017): 746-759.
- S Bouacida., et al. “Pesto Sauce Type Products: Influence of Beeswax and Storage Conditions on Rheology and Colloidal Stability”. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences 3 (2016): 911-920.
- D Kaur., et al. “Shelf Life Enhancement of Butter, Ice-Cream, and Mayonnaise by Addition of Lycopene”. International Journal of Food Properties 6 (2011): 1217-1231.
- SS Senadeera., et al. “Antioxidant, physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of probiotic yoghurt incorporated with various Annona species pulp”. Heliyon00955 (2018): 1-18.
- IA Haider., et al. “Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Supplementation on Probiotic Yoghurt: Physicochemical Properties, Microbial Content, and Sensory Attributes”. Foods2393 (2021): 1-15.
- R Agil., et al. “Lentils enhance probiotic growth in yogurt and provide added benefit of antioxidant protection. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und -Technologie”. Journal of Food Science and Technology 50 (2013): 45-49.
- S Khubber., et al. “Low-methoxyl pectin stabilizes low-fat set yoghurt and improves their physicochemical properties, rheology, microstructure and sensory liking”. Food Hydrocolloids (2020).
- T Ozcan., et al. “Survival of Lactobacillus casei and functional characteristics of reduced sugar red beetroot yoghurt with natural sugar substitutes”. International Journal of Dairy Technology 0 (2020): 1-13.
- S Çakmakçi and T Turgut. “Probiotic strawberry yogurts: Microbiological, chemical and sensory properties”. Probiotics Antimicrob. Proteins 11 (2018): 64-70.
- D Najgebauer-Lejko., et al. “Changes in the viscosity, textural properties, and water status in yogurt gel upon supplementation with green and Pu-erh tea”. Journal of Dairy Science 12 (2021): 1-11.