Effects of BMI on Occupation and Employment Status: An Adult Nigerians Study
AS Adekoya1,2* CI Ojo2 and OA Mafimidiwo2
1SAM Obesity Consult, Nigeria
2Federal Cooperative College, Ibadan, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: AS Adekoya, SAM Obesity Consult, Nigeria and Federal Cooperative College, Ibadan, Nigeria.
December 31, 2021; Published: April 26, 2022
Introduction: Background: Globally, obesity epidemic has implications for workforce, such as its effects on employment and occupation. It can prevent people from being in paid work due to poor health resulting in social or work discrimination. This study is to investigate the effects of BMI on occupation and employment status.
Dataset/Methods: Participants of working age (20-64yrs), adult males and females were randomly selected (n = 240). The BMI was measured using ≥ 30 kg/m2 as the cut-off; and the employment status categorized based on their occupation in two ways; first contrasting being in paid employment and occupation, and second, contrasting not being in paid employment due to non-working, sickness/disability, unemployment, early retirement and caring for home/family; but capable of paid work. Observational analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of increased BMI on occupation and employment-related outcomes.
Results: BMI association with all the occupation and employment-related outcomes investigated shows evidence of higher BMI causing increased risk of sickness, decreased caring for home/family, underemployment, and lower household income. There were evidence for causal effects and impacts differing by sex and age.
Discussion: BMI exerts causal effect on occupation and employment status, by affecting an individual’s health leading to increased unemployment arising from social or work discrimination, and inability to engage in paid occupation. Obesity epidemic may contribute to worklessness and therefore impose an increasing societal burden. This is of policy interest and rationale for government action.
Keywords: BMI; Occupation and Employment; Nigerians; Weight
- The GBD Obesity Collaborators. “Health effects of overweight and obesity in 195 countries over 25 years”. The New England Journal of Medicine 377 (2017): 13-27.
- Wang YC., et al. “Health and economic burden of the projected obesity trends in the USA and the UK”. Lancet 378 (2011): 815-825.
- Specchia ML., et al. “Economic impact of adult obesity on health systems: a systematic review”. European Journal of Public Health 25 (2014): 255-262.
- Ogden CL., et al. “Prevalence of obesity in the United States, 2009-2010”. NCHS data brief, no. 82. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics (2012).
- Bray GA. “Medical consequences of obesity”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 89 (2004): 2583-2589.
- Thompson D., et al. “Lifetime health and economic consequences of obesity”. Archives of Internal Medicine 159 (1999): 2177-2183.
- Finkelstein EA., et al. “The costs of obesity in the workplace”. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 52 (2010): 971-976.
- Ostbye T., et al. “Obesity and workers’ compensation”. Archives of Internal Medicine 167 (2007): 766-773.
- Dame Carol Black. “An independent review into the impact on employment outcomes of drug or alcohol addiction, and obesity. London, UK: Department for Work and Pensions (2016).
- Katikireddi SV., et al. “Patterns of mortality by occupation in the United Kingdom, 1991-2011: a comparative analysis of linked census-mortality records over time and place”. Lancet Public Health 2 (2017): e501-502.
- Roelfs DJ., et al. “Losing life and livelihood: a systematic review and meta-analysis of unemployment and all-cause mortality”. Social Science and Medicine 72 (2011): 840-854.
- Katikireddi SV., et al. “Employment status and income as potential mediators of educational inequalities in population mental health”. European Journal of Public Health 26 (2016): 814-816.
- Puhl RM. “Bias, stigma, and discrimination. In: Cawley J, editor. The oxford handbook of the social science of obesity. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2012).
- Roehling MV., et al. “Moderators of the effect of weight on job-related outcomes: a meta-analysis of experimental studies”. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 43 (2013): 237-252.
- Nowrouzi B., et al. “Lost-time illness, injury and disability and its relationship with obesity in the workplace: a comprehensive literature review”. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 29 (2016): 749-766.
- Townsend P., et al. “Health and deprivation: inequality and the North. London, UK: Routledge (1988).
- , et al. “Obesity Trends in Latin America: Transiting from Under- to Overweight”. The Journal of Nutrition (2001).
- Lohman TG and Martorell R. “Anthropometric standardization reference manual”. Human Kinetics Books: Champaign, IL (1988).
- National Center for Education Statistics. Early Childhood Longitudinal Program (ECLS) (2017).
- Bramming M., et al. “BMI and labor market participation: a cohort study of transitions between work, unemployment, and sickness absence”. Obesity 27 (2019): 1703-1710.
- Virtanen M., et al. “Lifestyle factors and risk of sickness absence from work: a multicohort study”. Lancet Public Health 3 (2018): e545-554.
- Behrman JR and Rosenzweig MR. “The returns to increasing body weight. Universityof Pennsylvania, USA: Penn Institute for Economic Research (PIER) Working Paper Series (2001).
- Jusot F., et al. “Job loss from poor health, smoking and obesity: a national prospective survey in France”. Journal of Epidemiology Community Health 62 (2008): 332-337.
- Robroek SJW., et al. “The contribution of overweight, obesity, and lack of physical activity to exit from paid employment: a metaanalysis”. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 39 (2013): 233-240.
- Morris S. “Body mass index and occupational attainment”. Journal of Health Economics 25 (2006): 347-64.
- Morris S. “The impact of obesity on employment”. Labour Economics 14 (2007): 413-433.
- Sari N and Osman BA. “The effect of body weight on employment among Canadian women: evidence from Canadian data”. Canadian Journal of Public Health 109 (2018): 873-881.
- Cawley J. “An instrumental variables approach to measuring the effect of body weight on employment disability”. Health Services Research 35 (2000): 1159-1179.
- Kinge JM. “Body mass index and employment status: a new look”. Economics and Human Biology 22 (2016): 117-125.
- Brunello G and D Hombres B. “Does body weight affect wages? Evidence from Europe”. Economics and Human Biology 5 (2007): 1-19.
- Lindeboom M., et al. “Assessing the impact of obesity on labor market outcomes”. Economics and Human Biology 8 (2010): 309-319.
- Norton EC and Han E. “Genetic information, obesity, and labor market outcomes”. Health Economic 17 (2008): 1089-1104.
- Cawley J. “The impact of obesity on wages”. The Journal of Human Resources 39 (2004): 451-474.
- Böckerman P., et al. “The effect of weight on labor market outcomes: an application of genetic instrumental variables”. Health Economic 28 (2019): 65-77.
- Clemens T., et al. “Unemployment, mortality and the problem of healthrelated selection: evidence from the Scottish and England & Wales (ONS) Longitudinal Studies”. Health Statistics 43 (2009): 7-13.
- Desmond D Campbell., et al. “Effects of increased body mass index on employment status: a Mendelian randomisation study”. International Journal of Obesity 45 (2021): 1790-1801.
- AS Adekoya., et al. “Independent Effect of Income and Energy Intake on Obesity Among Nigerian Adults Population of Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria”. EC Nutrition12 (2019): 01-09.
- AS Adekoya., et al. “Relationship between Educational Level and Incidence of Obesity among Adults in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria". Acta Scientific Medical Sciences8 (2020): 136-142.