Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Review Article Volume 6 Issue 4

Rice Consumption Enhancing Innate Immunity with a Reduced Risk of COVID-19 Infection and Mortality

Shaw Watanabe1,2* and Kazumoto Iinuma3

1Medical Rice Association; Tokyo, Japan
2Tokyo University of Agriculture; Tokyo, Japan
3Ricetech Corporation; Tokyo, Japan

*Corresponding Author:Shaw Watanabe, Medical Rice Association; Tokyo, Japan and Tokyo University of Agriculture; Tokyo, Japan.

Received: March 08, 2022; Published: March 21, 2022

Abstract

Incidence and mortality of COVID-19 varied significantly by country. No clear hypothesis has been proposed to explain such an enormous difference. We found that annual rice consumption by country inversely correlated well to the cumulative number of COVID-19/million by compiling data from 17 major countries of G20. The negative correlation coefficient was 0.74, while wheat consumption showed a positive correlation. It suggested that the nature of staple foods supported primary resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Early resistance to developing COVID-19 pneumonia would be cellular immunity and curable inflammation. Parallel increase of antibodies helped to eradicate pathogenic viruses. Pathologically, two plausible factors were sIgA, which mechanically blocked the virus from binding to the ACE2 receptor. Another factor was suppressing cytokine storm by regulatory T cells expanded by butyrate from intestinal microbiota.

The gut environment based upon the rice eating habit seemed essential to support a stable immune system byT17/Treg balance. Long rice-eating practices contributed to producing a secretary piece of IgA and growing particular microbiota composition, which had produced butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids, influencing various physiological functions. Rice eating would be the "X factor" by building solid innate immunity. However, different cultural habits, such as bowing etiquette, wearing face masks, and handwashing with sanitizing equipment, also suppress SARC-Co-2 infection. The suppressive action of the X-factor continued regardless of the different variants of SARS-Co-2. infection. The recent pandemic of Omicron seems to attenuate to habituate in human society as suggested from the historical aspect.

Keywords:COVID-19; Innate Immunity; Rice Eating; sIgA; Microbiota

References

  1. Jarus O. “20 of the worst epidemics and pandemics in history” (2020).
  2. Snowden FM. “Epidemics and society: From the black death to the present”. New Haven and London: Yale University Press (2019).
  3. Nishiura H., et al. “Serial interval of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections” (2020).
  4. Watanabe S. “The COVID-19 pandemic reminds us of the importance of primary immune defenses". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health6 (2020): 08-09.
  5. World Health Organization. “Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants”.
  6. Masuda M. “Viral characteristics of SARC-Cov-2”. Modern Media 66.11 (2020): 313-320.
  7. Johns Hopkins University of Medicine, Coronavirus Research Center Mortality Analyses - Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center (jhu.edu) (2020).
  8. Furuse Y., et al. “National Task Force for VOVID-19 Outbreak in Japan from January-March 2020”. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 73 (2020): 391-393.
  9. Rambaut A., et al. “A Dynamic nomenclature proposal for SARS - CoV-2 lineages to assist genomic epidemiology”. Nature Microbiology 5.11 (2020): 1403 -1407.
  10. Zou F., et al. “Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study”. Lancet 395 (2020): 1054-1062.
  11. Merino J., et al. “Diet quality and risk and severity of COVID-19: a prospective cohort study”. Gut11 (2021): 2096-2104.
  12. Bollyky TJ., et al. “Pandemic preparedness and COVID-19: an exploratory analysis of infection and fatality rates, and contextual fators associated with preparedness in 177 countries from Jan 1, 2020, to Sep 30, 2021” S0140-6736.22 (2020): 00172-00176.
  13. Watanabe S and Wahlqvist M. “Covid-19 and dietary socioecology: Risk minimization”. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2 (2020): 207-219.
  14. Dao TL., et al. “SARS - CoV-2 infectivity and severity of COVID-19 according to SARS-CoV-2 variants: Current evidence”. Journal of Clinical Medicine 10.12 (2021): 2635.
  15. Watanabe S and Iinuma K. “Low COVID-19 infection and mortality in rice eating countries”. Scholarly Journal of Food and Nutrition 3 (2020): 326-328.
  16. Watanabe S., et al. “Host Factors That Aggravate COVID-19 Pneumonia”. International Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 3 (2020): 1011-1014.
  17. Watanabe S and Inuma K. “The Combined effects of IgA-mediated immunity and rice consumption in suppressing COVID-19 infections”. Scholarly Journal of Food and Nutrition 2 (2020): 2020.
  18. Ito S. “Per capita consumption of rice, wheat, and corn in the world and their changes. Kyushu University. Faculty of Agriculture”. World Food Statistics and Graphics (2020).
  19. Watanabe S., et al. “Effects of Brown Rice on Obesity: GENKI Study I (Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Study)”. Journal of Obesity and Chronic Diseases 1 (2020): 12-19.
  20. Hirakawa A., et al. “The nested study on the intestinal microbiota in GENKI Study with special reference to the effect of brown rice eating”. Journal of Obesity and Chronic Diseases 1 (2019): 1- 13.
  21. Kikuchi K., et al. “Changes in Microbiota and Short-Chain Fatty Acids Following 3-Month Pilot Intervention Study Feeding Brown Rice Ball (Omusubi) to Healthy Volunteers”. Prensa Medica Argentina1 (2020): 1-11.
  22. Watanabe S., et al. “Medical rice, Discovery of new food. In RB Singh (Ed). “Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in Metabolic and Non-Communicable Diseases”. Elsevier (in Press)
  23. Honda K and Littman DR. “The microbiota in adaptive immune homeostasis and disease”. Nature7610 (2016): 75-84.
  24. Qiu X., et al. “Faecalibacterium prausnitziii upregulates regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory cytokines in treating TNBS-induced colitis”. Journal of Crohn's and Colitis 7 e558-e568.
  25. Furusawa Y., et al. “Commensal microbe-derived butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic regulatory T cells”. Nature 7480 (2013): 446-450.
  26. Smith PM., et al. “The microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, regulate colonic Treg cell homeostasis”. Science 341 (2013): 69-77.
  27. Bachem A., et al. “Microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acids promote memory potential of antigen-activated CD8 (+) T cells”. Immunity 51 (2019): 285-297.
  28. Hirayama M., et al. “Intestinal Collinsellamay mitigate infection and exacerbation of COVID-19 by producing ursodeoxycholate”. PLoS ONE11 (2021): e0260451.
  29. Ahmad T., et al. “COVID-19: The emerging immunopathological determinants for recovery or death”. Frontiers in Microbiology 11 (2020): 588409.
  30. Letko M., et al. “Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS - CoV-2 and other lineage beta coronaviruses”. Nature Microbiology 5.4 (2020): 562-569.
  31. Baglivo M., et al. “Natural small molecules as inhibitors of coronavirus lipid dependent attachment to host cells: a possible strategy for reducing SARS-COV-2 infectivity?” Acta Biomedica 1 (2020): 161-164.
  32. Hadjadj J., et al. “Impaired type I interferon activity and inflammatory responses in severe COVID-19 patients”. Science 6504 (2020): 718-724.
  33. Park A and Iwasaki A. “Type I and Type III interferons-Induction, signaling, evasion, and application to combat COVID-19”. Cell Host and Microbe (2021).
  34. Watanabe S., et al. “T-Zone histiocytes with S100 protein”. Pathology International 1 (1983): 15-22.
  35. Mehta P., et al. “COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression”. Lancet 395 (2020): 1033-1034.
  36. Curtis N., et al. “Considering BCG vaccination to reduce the impact of COVID-19”. Lancet10236 (2020): 1545-1546.
  37. Madsen AMR., et al. “Using BCG vaccine to enhance non-specific protection of health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial in Denmark”. Trials 21 (2020): 799.
  38. Miyasaka M. “Is BCG vaccination causally related to reduced COVID-19 mortality?” EMBO Molecular Medicine 6 (2020): e12661.
  39. Iwasaki A and Grubaugh ND. “Why does Japan have so few cases of COVID‐19?” EMBO Molecular Medicine 5 (2020): e12481.
  40. Shimizu K., et al. “Identification of TCR repertoires in functionally competent cytotoxic T cells cross-reactive to SARS-CoV-2”. Communications Biology 4 (2021): 1365.
  41. Takagi A and Matsui M. “Identification of HLA-A*24:02-restricted CTL candidate epitopes derived from the nonstructural polyprotein 1a of SARS-CoV-2 and analysis of their conservation using the mutation database of SARS-CoV-2 variants”. Microbiology Spectrum 3 (2021): e0165921.
  42. Brown CM., et al. “Outbreak of SARS - CoV-infections, including COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough infections, associated with large public gatherings - Barnstable County, Massachusetts, July 2021”. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 70.31 (2021): 1059 -1062.
  43. Varga Z., et al. “Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19”. Lancet 395 (2020): 1417-1418.
  44. Wu Y., et al. “Nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 and other coronaviruses”. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 87 (2020): 18:22.
  45. He X., et al. “Temporal dynamics in viral shedding and transmissibility of COVID-19”. Nature Medicine5 (2020): 672-675.
  46. Takahashi M., et al. “Dietary and Life Habits of Obesity and Brown Rice Eaters among Genmai Evidence for Nutritional Kenko Innovation (GENKI) Study I and II (2020).
  47. Ghosh TS., et al. “Mediterranean diet intervention alters the gut microbiome in older people reducing frailty and improving health1082984. status: the NU-AGE 1 year dietary intervention across five European countries”. Gut 69 (2020): 1218-1228.
  48. Murooka Y and Yamashita M. “Traditional healthful fermented products of Japan”. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 35 (2008): 791-798.
  49. Watanabe S. “Rice function for disease prevention and establishment of medical rice association”. Diabetes Research - Open Journal 1 (2019): e1-e3.
  50. Heikkinen T and Järvinen A. “The common cold”. Lancet 361.9351 (2003): 51-59.
  51. Ye ZW., et al. “Zoonotic origins of human coronaviruses”. International Journal of Biological Sciences 16.10 (2020): 1686-1697.
  52.  

Citation

Citation: Shaw Watanabe and Kazumoto Iinuma. “Rice Consumption Enhancing Innate Immunity with a Reduced Risk of COVID-19 Infection and Mortality". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 6.4 (2022): 80-90.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 Shaw Watanabe and Kazumoto Iinuma. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.316

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is December 15, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US