Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 3

Reduction of Antinutritional Factors of Three Varieties of Sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.) Seeds When Applying Heat-Alkaline Treatments

Harold Toros and Romel Guzmán-Alvarez

Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Los Chaguaramos, Venezuela

*Corresponding Author: Romel Guzmán-Alvarez, Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Los Chaguaramos, Venezuela.

Received: December 30, 2021; Published: February 21, 2022

Abstract

Diets rich in plant products have become popular in recent times due to the contribution of essential macronutrients, as well as micronutrients with beneficial characteristics for health and sesame (Sesamum indicum) is part of this group of foods for its protein content and its content of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids that contribute to the prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases. However, there are secondary metabolites synthesized by plants as protective mechanisms, called anti-nutritional factors, which affect the nutritional value of certain foods, in this case sesame seeds. We studied the effect on three different varieties of sesame seeds (DV-9; Guesa-4 and Guesa-150 whole and dehulled, the application of an alkaline treatment (KOH 0.7%) at 55°C for 5; 10 and 15 minutes, on the reduction of antinutritional factors (saponins, phytic acid and oxalates). The most effective treatment in reducing antinutritional factors was the alkaline treatment dehulled for 15 minutes because it reduced the content for the DV-9 variety, of saponins, phytic acid and oxalates by 27.76; 93.27 and 88.63% respectively, for the Guesa-4 variety by 23.79; 92.22 and 92.06% respectively and for the Guesa-150 variety by 23.79; 86.88 and 91.36% respectively. These results showed that when seeds were exposed to 0.7% KOH solution for 15 minutes, the phytic acid and oxalate content was reduced by a high percentage. The alkaline dehulled treatment during 15 minutes, produced changes in the proximal composition of the varieties of seeds studied, generating an increase in the content of moisture, crude protein and crude fat, and reduced the content of ash and carbohydrates.

Keywords: Sesame; Oxalate; Saponins; Phytic Acid; Nutritional Factors; Antinutritional Factors

References

  1. Martínez M. “Antinutrientes proteicos de las leguminosas: tipos, toxicidad y efectos fisiológicos”. Trabajo de grado en Nutrición Humana y Dietética, Universidad de Valladolid (2016).
  2. Gómez L and Nader M. “Productos elaborados con semillas de chía y sésamo: composición química, aceptabilidad, satisfacción y conocimiento sobre sus propiedades nutricionales”. Actualización en Nutrición 13 (2012): 250-267.
  3. Pineda M. “Respuesta del cultivo de ajonjolí (Sesamum indicum L, Pedaliaceae) a la fertilización al suelo y foliar en Aldea El Paredón Buena Vista, La Gomera, Escuintla, Guatemala”. Tesis de Ingeniero Agrónomo, Universidad Rafael Landiva (2009).
  4. “Production statistics”. FAO, Rome, Italy (2016).
  5. Cruz E. “La importancia del cultivo de ajonjolí (Sesamum indicum) en México”. Monografía de Ingeniero Agrónomo, Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro (2003).
  6. Anilakumar K., et al. “Nutritional, medicinal and industrial uses of sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds”. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 75 (2010): 159-168.
  7. Elizalde A., et al. “Factores antinutricionales en semillas”. Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, 7 (2009): 45-54.
  8. Makinde F and Akinoso R. “Nutrient composition and effect of processing treatments on anti nutritional factors of Nigerian sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn) cultivars”. International Food Research Journal 20 (2013): 2293-2300.
  9. Olagunju A and Ifesan B. “Changes in nutrient and antinutritional contents of sesame seeds during fermentation”. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences 2 (2013): 2407-2410.
  10. Association of Official Analytical Chemist AOAC. “Official methods of analysis”. 15th edition. Washington DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2010).
  11. ElKhori S., et al. “The microwave-assisted process (MAPTM1): Extraction and determination of fat from cocoa powder and cocoa nibs”. Journal of Food Engineering 79 (2007): 1110-1114.
  12. Obadoni B and Ochuko P. “Phytochemical Studies and Comparative Efficacy of the Crude Extracts of Some Homeostatic Plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria”. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science 8 (2001): 203-208.
  13. Rodríguez J. “Determinación y cuantificación de saponinas en las hojas de la cabuya (Furcraea andina) para su posible uso como tensoactivo en detergentes biodegradables”. Trabajo de grado de Químico y Farmacéutico, Universidad de Guayaquil (2017).
  14. Wheeler EL and Ferrel RE. “A method for phytic acid determination in wheat fractions”. Cereal Chemistry 48 (1971): 312-316.
  15. Kayode R., et al. “Physico-chemical and antinutritional characterization of the kernels of some mango (Mangifera indica) cultivars grown in Western parts of Nogeria”. Food Science and Quality Management 22 (2013): 1-8.
  16. Underwood G. “Quantitative Analysis”. 5th ed. Prentice Hall Publication, London (1986).
  17. Montilla D and Terán H. “UCLA-1, una nueva variedad de ajonjolí (Sesamum indicum)”. Bioagro 8 (1996): 26-29.
  18. Gómez J. “Efecto de la concentración de ajonjolí (Sesamum indicum) sobre las propiedades nutricionales, sensoriales y reológicas de un producto untable de cacao (Theobroma cacao)”. Trabajo especial de grado de Licenciatura, Universidad Central de Venezuela ( 2018).
  19. Ogungbenle H and Onoge F. “Nutrient composition and functional properties of raw, defatted and protein concentrate of sesame (Sesamum indicum) flour”. European Journal of Biotechnology and Bioscience 2 (2014): 37-43.
  20. Momoh A., et al. “The effects of different treatments on the phytochemicals, proximate, and mineral contents of beniseeds (Sesamum indicum Linn)”. Global Advanced Research Journal of Biotechnology 1 (2012): 008-011.
  21. Khashaba A., et al. “Effect of some heat treatments on chemical composition and oil characteristics of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum)”. Journal of Food and Dairy Science 5 (2014): 701-716.
  22. Jimoh W., et al. “Effect of processing on some minerals, anti-nutrients and nutritional composition of sesame (Sesamum indicum) seed meals”. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 7 (2011): 79-85.
  23. Nwobasi C and Attamah C. “Proximate analysis and phytochemical properties of sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds grown and consumed in Abakaliki, Ebonyi state, Nigeria”. International Journal of Health and Medicine 2 (2017): 1-4.
  24. Chocrón S. “Evaluación nutricional de sucedáneo de yogur elaborado a partir de ajonjolí (Sesamum indicum)”. Trabajo especial de grado de Licenciatura, Universidad Central de Venezuela (2018).
  25. Bello F., et al. “Evaluation of some antinutritional factors in oil-free white Sesamum indicum seed cake”. International Journal of Food Nutrition and Safety 4 (2013): 27-33.
  26. Okoronkwo N., et al. “Assessment of potential values of Sesamum indicum seed”. International Journal of Arts and Sciences 07 (2014): 19-27.
  27. Nwalo N. “Genetic diversity of Nigerian Sesame cultivars (Sesamum indicum L) based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and its relationship with phytochemicals”. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 4 (2015): 898-908.
  28. Ridout C., et al. “Quinoa saponins-analysis and preliminary investigations into the effects of reduction by processing”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 54 (1991): 165-176.
  29. Quispe F., et al. “A Kinetic approach to saponin extraction during washing of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds”. Journal of Food Process Engineering 36 (2013): 1-9.
  30. Oenning G., et al. “Degradation of oat saponins during heat processing - effect of pH, stainless steel, and iron at different temperatures”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 42 (1994): 2578-2582.
  31. Güçlü Ü and Mazza G. “Saponins: Properties, Applications and Processing”. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 47 (2007): 231-258.
  32. Ahumada A., et al. “Saponinas de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): un subproducto con alto potencial biológico”. Revista de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas 45 (2016): 438-469.
  33. Makinde F and Akinoso R. “Comparison between the nutritional quality of flour obtained from raw, roasted and fermented sesame (Sesamum indicum) seed grown in Nigeria”. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum 13 (2014): 309-319.
  34. Okudu H., et al. “Nutrients and anti-nutrients contents of white beniseed cultivar (Sesamum indicum) in nigeria”. Direct Research Journal of Agriculture and Food Science 4 (2016): 290-293.
  35. Chichester C., et al. “Advances in food research”. Academic Press. USA. (1982).
  36. Abbas Y and Ahmad A. “Impact of processing on nutritional and antinutritional factors of legumes: a review”. Annals of Food Science and Technology 19 (2018): 199-215.
  37. Thompson LU. “Potential health benefits and problems associated with antinutrients in foods”. Food Research International 26 (1993): 131-149.
  38. Febles C. “Estudio del contenido de fitatos enderivados de cereales de consumo en canarias”. Tesis Doctoral, Universidad de la Laguna. (1998).
  39. Greiner R and Konietzny U. “Improving enzymatic reduction ofmyo-inositol phosphates with inhibitory effects on mineral absorption in black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Preto)”. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 23 (1999): 249-261.
  40. Afify A., et al. “Bioavailability of iron, zinc, phytate and phytase activity during soaking and germination of white sorghum varieties”. PLoS ONE 6 (2011): e25512.
  41. Gupta R., et al. “Reduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grains”. Journal of Food Science and Technology 52 (2015): 676-684.
  42. Chang R., et al. “Phytate removal from whole dry beans by enzymatic hydrolisis and diffusion”. Journal of Food Science 42 (1977): 1098-1101.
  43. Lestienne I., et al. “The effects of soaking of whole, dehulled and ground millet and soybean seeds on phytate degradation and Phy/Fe and Phy/Zn molar ratios”. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 40 (2005): 391-399.
  44. Reddy N and Salunkhe D. “Interactions between phytate, protein, and minerals in whey fractions of black gram”. Journal of Food Science 46 (1981): 564-567.
  45. Bishnoi S., et al. “Effect of domestic processing and cooking methods on phytic acid and polyphenol contents of pea cultivars (Pissm sativum)”. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 45 (1994): 381-388.
  46. Manikantan M., et al. “Selection of process parameters for producing high quality defatted sesame flour at pilot scale”. Journal of Food Science and Technology 52 (2015): 1778-1783.
  47. Singh P and Saxena N. “Variation in oxalate and mineral contents of Bathua Vegetables collected from different sites”. Indian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 10 (1973): 84-90.
  48. Faheed F., et al. P”hysiological and ultrastructural studies on calcium oxalate crystal formation in some plants”. Turkish Journal of Botany 37 (2013): 139-152.
  49. Polli A., et al. “Structural development of the fruits and seeds in three mistletoe species of Phoradendron (Visceae: Santalaceae)”. Rodriguésia 67 (2016): 649-659.
  50. Irudayaraj A., et al. “Synthesis, growth and characterization of semi-organic crystal: potassium hydrogen oxalate dihydrate”. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research 6 (2015): 2732-2736.

Citation

Citation: Harold Toros and Romel Guzmán-Alvarez. “Reduction of Antinutritional Factors of Three Varieties of Sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.) Seeds When Applying Heat-Alkaline Treatments". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 6.3 (2022): 59-68.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022Harold Toros and Romel Guzmán-Alvarez. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.316

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US