Brassica Vegetables: Diversity, Nutritional and Health Benefits, and Innovative Markets for Dietary Diversity
João Carlos da Silva Dias*
University of Lisbon - Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
*Corresponding Author: João Carlos da Silva Dias, University of Lisbon - Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017
Lisboa, Portugal. E-mail: email@example.com
January 06, 2022; Published: January 27, 2022
The genus Brassica comprises six crop species: B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa, B. carinata, B. juncea and B. napus, which provide edible roots, leaves, petioles, stems, inflorescences and seed. All of these six species can be used and consumed as vegetable, although B. nigra is most exclusively cultivated as condiment mustard. Of these species, B. oleracea and B. rapa are highly polymorphic displaying a range of vegetable morphotypes. Brassica vegetable crops are a unique and diverse group. They are highly nutritious and have unique flavor and taste. Brassicas are good sources of dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin K, minerals, and antioxidants glucosinolates and flavonoids, that exhibit anticarcinogen properties. They can accumulate considerable amounts of selenium when grown on high selenium content soils. This article highlights the nutritional and health benefits of vegetable Brassicas, as well as examples of breeding products and attractive product concepts that can stimulate Brassicas consumption and diet diversity.
Keywords: Cruciferae; Nutrition; Phytochemicals; Bioactive Compounds; Glucosinolates; Antioxidants, Diet; Breeding and Selection; New Attractive Products; Consumption
- FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). FAOSTAT Database. Top exports of “Cabbages and Other Brassica s” and “Cauliflower and Broccoli” (2021).
- Morinaga T. “Interspecific hybridization in Brassica. VI. The cytology of F1 hybrids of juncea and B. nigra”. Cytologia 6 (1934): 62-67.
- “Genome analysis in Brassica with special reference to the experimental formation of B. napus and peculiar mode of fertilization”. Journal of Japanese Botany 7 (1935): 389-452.
- Bailey LH. “The cultivated Brassicas”. Gent Herb 1 (1922): 53-108.
- Dias JS. “Taxonomia das Couves Galaico-Portuguesas Utilizando Caracteres Morfológicos, Isoenzimas e RFLPs. PhD thesis (Dissertação de Doutoramento)”. Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (1992).
- Crisp P. “The use of an evolutionary scheme for cauliflowers in the screening of genetic resources”. Euphytica 31 (1982): 725-734.
- Dias JS. “Minerals and Nutraceuticals in Vegetables and Their Human Health Benefits”. Highlights on Medicine and Medical Science 12 (2021): 27-71.
- Fermenia A., et al. “Effects of Heat Treatment and Dehydration on Properties of Cauliflower Fiber”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47 (1999): 728-732.
- Rahn CR., et al. “Chemical Characterization of Vegetable and Arable Crops Residue Materials: A Comparison of Methods”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79 (1999): 1715-1721.
- Cao G., et al. “Antioxidant Capacity of Tea and Common Vegetables”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44 (1996): 3426-3431.
- Kurilich A., et al. “Carotene, Tocopherol and Ascorbate Contents in Subspecies of Brassica oleracea”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47 (1999): 1576-1581.
- Kushad MK., et al. “Variation in Glucosinolates in Vegetable Crops of Brassica oleracea”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47 (1999): 1541-1548.
- Kurilich AC., et al. “Antioxidant capacity of different broccoli (Brassica oleracea) genotypes using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (2002): 5053-5057.
- Eberhard MV., et al. “Correlation analyses of phytochemical composition, chemical, and cellular measures of antioxidant activity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica)”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (2005): 7421-7431.
- Granado F., et al. “Bioavailability of carotenoids and tocopherols from broccoli: In vivo and in vitro assessment”. Experimental Biology and Medicine 231 (2006): 1733-1738.
- Miyazawa M., et al. “Volatile components of the leaves of Brassica rapa L. var. perviridis Bailey”. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 20 (2005): 158-160.
- Wills RBH and Rangga A. “Determination of carotenoids in Chinese vegetables”. Food Chemistry 56 (1996): 451-455.
- Lefsrud MG and Kopsell DA. “Kale carotenoids are unaffected by, whereas biomass production, elemental concentrations, and selenium accumulation respond to, changes in selenium fertility”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (2006): 1764-1771.
- Podsedek A. “Natural antioxidants and antioxidant capacity of Brassica vegetables: A review”. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft and Technologie 40 (2007): 1-11.
- Piironen V., et al. “Tocopherols and tocotrienols in Finnish foods: Vegetables, fruits, and berries”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 34 (1986): 742-746.
- Goldoni JS., et al. “Comparative study of vitamin C of cabbage cultivars (Brassica oleraceae L., var. capitata L.), before and after their processing in sauerkraut”. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición 33 (1983): 45-56.
- Bailey LB., et al. “Folic acid supplements and fortification affect the risk for neural tube defects, vascular disease and cancer: Evolving science”. Journal of Nutrition 133 (2003): 1961S-1968S.
- Bollheimer LC., et al. “Folate and its preventive potential in colorectal carcinogenesis: How strong is the biological and epidemiological evidence?”. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 55 (2005): 13-36.
- Konings EJM., et al. “Folate Intake of the Dutch Population according to Newly Established Liquid Chromatography Data for Foods”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73 (2001): 765-776.
- Melse-Boonstra A., et al. “Influence of processing on total, monoglutamate and polyglutamate folate contents of leeks, cauliflower, and green beans”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (2002): 3473-3478.
- Tirasoglu E., et al. “Determination of trace elements in cole (Brassica oleraceae var. acephala) at Trabzon region in Turkey”. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer 94 (2005): 181-187.
- Puupponen-Pimia R., et al. “Blanching and long-term freezing affect various bioactive compounds of vegetables in different ways”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83 (2003): 1389-1402.
- Heaney RP., et al. “Absorbability of calcium from Brassica vegetables: broccoli, bok choy, and kale”. Journal of Food Science 58 (1993): 1378-1380.
- Finley JW. “Reduction of cancer risk by consumption of selenium-enriched plants: enrichment of broccoli with selenium increases the anticarcinogenic properties of broccoli”. Journal of Medicinal Food 6 (2003): 19-26.
- Banuelos G and Meek D. “Selenium Accumulation in Selected Vegetables”. Journal of Plant Nutrition 12 (1989): 1255-1272.
- Finley JW., et al. “Cancer-Protective Properties of High Selenium Broccoli”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49 (2001): 2679-2683.
- Finley JW., et al. “Selenium from High Selenium Broccoli Protects Rats from Colon Cancer”. The Journal of Nutrition 130 (2000): 2384-2389.
- Bibak A., et al. “Concentration of 63 Elements in Cabbage and Sprouts in Denmark”. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 30 (1999): 2409-2418.
- Fuhrman J. “The End of Diabetes: The Eat to Live Plan to Prevent and Reverse Diabetes”. Harper Collins Publishers, New York (2013).
- Dias JS and Imai S. “Vegetables Consumption and Its Benefits on Diabetes”. Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics 6 (2017): 1-10.
- Carter P., et al. “Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis”. BMJ 341 (2010): c4229.
- Bazzano LA., et al. “Intake of fruit, vegetables and fruit juices and risk of diabetes in women”. Diabetes Care 31 (2008): 1311-1317.
- Khan BA., et al. “Hypoglycemic action of Murraya Koeingii (curry leaf) and Brassica juncea (mustard): mechanism of action”. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics 32 (1995): 106-108.
- Verhoeven DTH., et al. “Epidemiological studies on Brassica vegetables and cancer risk”. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 5 (1996): 733-751.
- Kohlmeier L and Su L. “Cruciferous vegetables consumption and colorectal cancer risk: meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence”. FSEB Journal 11 (1997): 369.
- Brennan P., et al. “Effect of cruciferous vegetables on lung cancer in patients stratified by genetic status: a mendelian randomisation approach”. Lancet 366 (2005): 1558-1560.
- Traka M. “Broccoli consumption interferes with prostate cancer progression: mechanisms of action”. Acta Horticulturae 867 (2010): 19-25.
- Dias JS. “Nutritional quality and effect on disease prevention of vegetables”. Food and Nutrition Sciences 10 (2019): 369-402.
- Fowke JH., et al. “Urinary Isothiocyanate Levels, Brassica, and Human Breast Cancer”. Cancer Research 63 (2003): 3980-3986.
- Joseph MA., et al. “Cruciferous Vegetables, Generic Polymorphism in Glutathione S-Transferases M1 and T1, and Prostate Cancer Risk”. Nutrition and Cancer 50 (2004): 206-213.
- Farnham MW., et al. “Capacity of Broccoli to Induce Mammalian Chemo Protective Enzyme Varies Among Inbred Lines”. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 125 (2000): 482-488.
- Maina S., et al. “Human, animal and plant health benefits of glucosinolates and strategies for enhanced bioactivity: A systematic review”. Molecules 25 (2000): 3682.
- Soengas P., et al. “Antioxidant properties of Brassica vegetables”. In: Silva JT, Ed., Functional Plant Science and Biotechnology, 5. Global Science Books: Kagawa-ken, Japan (2011): 43-55.
- Björkman M., et al. “Phytochemicals of Brassica ceae in plant protection and human health - Influences of climate, environment and agronomic practice”. Phytochemistry 72 (2011): 538-556.
- Kushad MK., et al. “Variation in glucosinolates in vegetable crops of Brassica oleracea”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47 (1999): 1541-1548.
- Fahey JW., et al. “Broccoli sprouts: An Exceptionally Rich Source of Inducers of Enzymes that Protects against Chemical Carcinogens”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94 (1997): 10367-10372.
- Dias JS. “Nutritional quality and health benefits of vegetables: a review”. Food and Nutrition Sciences 3 (2012): 1354-1374.
- Vallejo F., et al. “Total and individual glucosinolate contents in inflorescences of eight broccoli cultivars grown under various climatic and fertilization conditions”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 83 (2003): 307-313.
- Hansen M., et al. “Red Cabbage, a Vegetable Rich in Health-Related Glucosinolates”. Acta Horticulturae 867 (2010): 61-65.
- Kusznierewicz B., et al. “Partial characterization of white cabbages (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba) from different regions by glucosinolates, bioactive compounds, total antioxidant activities and proteins”. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft and Technologie 41 (2008): 1-9.
- Carlson DG., et al. “Glucosinolates in crucifer vegetables: broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, collards, kale, mustard green, and kohlrabi”. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 112 (1987): 173-178.
- Carlson DG., et al. “Glucosinolates in crucifer vegetables: turnip and rutabagas”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 29 (1981): 1235-1239.
- Carlson DG., et al. “Glucosinolates in turnip tops and roots: cultivars grown for greens and/or roots”. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 112 (1987): 179-183.
- Yang B and Quiros CF. “Survey of glucosinolate variation in leaves of Brassica rapa crops”. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 57 (2010): 1079-1089.
- Schonhof I., et al. “Genotipic effects on glucosinolates and sensory properties of broccoli and cauliflower”. Nahrung-Food 48 (2004): 25-33.
- Miean KH and Mohamed S. “Flavonoid (Myricetin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Luteolinand Apigenin) Content of Edible Tropical Plants”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49 (2001): 106-112.
- Hertog MG., et al. “Content of Potentially Anticarcinogenic Flavonoids of 28 Vegetables and Fruits Commonly Consumed in the Netherlands”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 40 (1992): 2379-2383.
- Nielson JK., et al. “Acylated Flavonol Glycosides from Cabbage Leaves”. Phytochemistry 34 (1993): 539-544.
- Ferreres F., et al. “Tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) seeds: phytochemical characterization and antioxidant potential”. Food Chemistry 101 (2007): 549-558.
- Moreno DA., et al. “Health benefits of broccoli. Influence of pre- and post-harvest factors on bioactive compounds”. Global Science Books 1 (2007): 297-312.
- Gliszczynska-Swiglo A., et al. “The effect of solar radiation on the favonol content in broccoli inflorescence”. Food Chemistry 100 (2007): 241-245.
- Mithen RF. “Development and commercialization of ‘Beneforté’ broccoli and potential health benefits”. Proc. 6th ISHS on Brassica s and 18th Crucifer Genetics Workshop. Acta Horticulturae 1005 (2013): 67-70.
- Dias JS. “Nutritional quality and effect on disease prevention of vegetables”. In: Mozsik G and Figler M, Eds. Nutrition in Health and Disease, Intech Open, London, United Kingdom (2019): 83-112.
- Kisiel R. “Broccoli juice helps patient beat bladder cancer”. Mail Online 21 July 2008, Daily Mail Online New Archive, England (2008).
- Munday R., et al. “Inhibition of N-butyl-N- (4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN)-induced rat bladder carcinogenesis by broccoli sprouts”. Cancer Research 68 (2008): 1593-1600.
- Bhattacharya A., et al. “Inhibition of bladder cancer development by allyl isothiocyanate”. Carcinogenesis 31 (2010): 281-286.
- Tribulato A., et al. “Survey of health-promoting compounds in seeds and sprouts of Brassica ceae”. Proc. 6th ISHS on Brassica s and 18th Crucifer Genetics Workshop. Acta Horticulturae 1005 (2013): 323-330.
- Vale AP., et al. “Evaluating the impact of sprouting conditions on the glucosinolate content of Brassica oleracea sprouts”. Phytochemistry 115 (2015): 252-260.
- Zhang Y., et al. “Induction of GST and nqoi in cultural bladder cells and in the urinary bladders of rats by an extract of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) sprouts”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54 (2006): 9370-9376.
- Wang F and Shang Y. “Sulforaphane retards the growth of um-uc-3 xenograft, induces apoptosis and reduces surviving in athymic mice”. Nutrition Research 32 (2012): 374-380.
- Pereira FMV., et al. “Influence of temperature and ontogeny on the levels of glucosinolates in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) sprouts and their effects on the induction of mammalian phase 2 enzymes”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (2002): 6239-6244.
- Fahey JW., et al. “Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 94 (1997): 1367-10372.
- Xiao Z., et al. “Assessment of Vitamin and Carotenoid Concentrations of Emerging Food Products: Edible Microgreens”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60 (2012): 7644-7651.
- Bryszewska M., et al. “Characterisation of selenium compounds in rye seedling using 75Se-labeling/SDS-PAGE separation/ γ-scintilation counting, and HPLC-ICP-MS analysis of a range of enzimatic digests”. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 382 (2005): 1279-1287.
- Piekarska A., et al. “Development and commercialization of ‘Beneforté’ broccoli and potential health benefits”. Proc. 6th ISHS on Brassica s and 18th Crucifer Genetics Workshop. Acta Horticulturae 1005 (2013): 71-85.