Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 2

Have we done Justice to Linus Pauling’s Discovery in 1970s with Regards to Utilization of Vitamin C for Prevention of Acute Respiratory Illnesses, Besides Role of Vitamin C in Current COVID19 Epidemic - A Comprehensive Review

Kulvinder Kochar Kaur1*, Gautam Allahbadia2 and Mandeep Singh3

1Scientific Director, Dr Kulvinder Kaur Centre for Human Reproduction, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
2Scientific Director, Rotunda-A Centre for Human Reproduction, Mumbai, India
3Consultant Neurologist, Swami Satyan and Hospital, Jalandhar, Punjab, India

*Corresponding Author: Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Scientific Director, Dr Kulvinder Kaur Centre for Human Reproduction, Jalandhar, Punjab, India.

Received: November 26, 2021; Published: January 18, 2022


At present restricted therapies are existent with regards to COVID-19. The significant antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antiviral characteristics of Vitamin C makes it a promising agent for avoidance in addition to abrogate COVID-19 infection, thus has a role as an adjunctive treatment for the critical care of COVID-19. Here we provide proof with regards to role of Vitamin C deficit in acute respiratory infections, in addition to support of the stress reaction, part of Vitamin C in avoidance as well as therapy of Pneumonia, besides sepsis as well as COVID-19. The proof till date pointed that oral Vitamin C in dosages 2-8g daily might cause reduction of incidence as well as time period of respiratory infections Here we conducted a systematic review utilizing search engine pubmed, google scholar; web of science; embase; Cochrane review library utilizing the Me SH terms like Vitamin C; physiological stress; Pneumonia; Sepsis;, COVID-19; mode of action; stress response and Vitamin C; antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory; antioxidant; antithrombotic; antiviral characteristics; oral; intravenous regimens from 1950s till date 2021. We found a total of 1300 articles out of which we selected 50 articles for this review, as per the restrictions of journal. No meta-analysis was done. Proof showed that iv Vitamin C (6-24g daily was demonstrated to cause a reduction in mortality, hospital intensive care unit (ICU) stay besides mechanical ventilation for acute robust respiratory infections. Thus its utilization is warranted in all severe respiratory infections, any viral Pneumonias apart from COVID-19 infection without any side action plus economical.


Keywords: Vitamin C; COVID-19; Sepsis; Pneumonia; Dengue; Sepsis


  1. , et al. “The genetics of Vitamin C”. Current Genomics 12 (2011): 371-378.
  2. Milton K. “Micronutrient intake of wild primates: are humans different?” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology 136 (2003): 47-59.
  3. Milton K. “Nutritional characteristics of wild primate foods: Do the diets of our closest living relatives have lessons for us?” Nutrition 15 (1999): 488-498.
  4. “European Food Safety Authority Panel on dietetic products, Nutrition and Alergies. Scientific opinion on dietary reference vales for Vitamin C”. EFSA Journal 11 (2013): 3418.
  5. Bates B., et al. “National diet and Nutrition Survey Years 1 to 9 of the Rolling Programme (2008/2009-2016/2017)”. Time Trend and Income Analysis; Public Health England: London, UK (2019).
  6. Berger MM., et al. “White Paper on Nutritional Status in Supporting a Well Functioning immune system for optimal Health with a recommendation for Switzerland”. SGE: Bern, Switzerland (2020).
  7. “Linus Pauling Institute, Micronutrient Information Center”. Micronutrient s for Older Adults Oregon State University (2020).
  8. Levine M., et al. “Vitamin C Pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers: evidence for a recommended dietary allowance”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 (1996): 3704-709.
  9. Padayatty SJ., et al. “Vitamin C Pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use”. Annals of Internal Medicine 140 (2004): 533-537.
  10. De-Grooth HJ., et al. “Vitamin C Pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients: a randomized trial of four intravenous regimens”. Chest 153 (2018): 1368-1377.
  11. Gan R., et al. “Vitamin C deficiency in a University teaching hospital”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 27 (2008): 428-433.
  12. Ravindran P., et al. “Vitamin C deficiency in an Australian cohort of metropolitan surgical patients”. Pathology 50 (2018): 654-658.
  13. Hunt C., et al. “The Clinical effects of Vitamin C supplementation, in elderly hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infections”. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 64 (1994): 212-219.
  14. Hemila H and Louhiala P. “Vitamin C may affect lung infections”. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 100 (2007): 495-498.
  15. Milton K., et al. “Plasma Vitamin C Concentrations and risk of incident respiratory and mortality in the European prospective investigations into Cancer-Norfolk population based cohort study”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73 (2019): 1492-1500.
  16. Hemila H and Louhiala P. “Vitamin C for preventing and treating Pneumonia”. Cochrane Database System Review (2013).
  17. Kory P and Kanne JP. “SARS CoV2 organizing Pneumonia :has there been a widespread failure to identify and treat COVID-19”. BMC Open Respiratory 7 (2020): e000724.
  18. Carr AC., et al. “Patients with community acquired Pneumonia exhibit depleted Vitamin C status and elevated Oxidative stress”. Nutrients 12 (2020): 1318.
  19. Fowler AA., et al. “Effect of Vitamin C organ failure and biomarkers of inflammation and Vascular injury in patients with sepsis and severe acute respiratory failure :the CITRIS ALI randomized Clinical trial”. JAMA 322 (2019): 1261-1270.
  20. Carr AC., et al. “Hypovitaminosis C and deficiency in critically ill patients despite recommended Ther enteral and parenteral intake”. Critical Care 21 (2018): 300.
  21. Arvirite C., et al. “Serum levels of Vitamin C and Vitamin D in a cohort of critically ill in patients of a north American community hospital intensive care unit In May 2020: a pilot study”. Medical Drug Discovery 8 (2020).
  22. Chis Cano-CamonL., et al. “Vitamin C levels in patients with SARS CoV2 associated ion acute respiratory distress syndrome”. Critical Care 24 (2020): 522.
  23. Marik PE and Hooper MH. “Doctor-your septic patients have Scurvy”. Critical Care 22 (2018): 23.
  24. Marik PE. “Vitamin C: An essential ‘’stress hormone’’ during sepsis”. Journal of Thoracic Disease 12 (2020): S84-S88.
  25. Colunga Biancatelli RML., et al. “The antiviral properties of Vitamin C”. Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy 18 (2020): 99-101.
  26. Dahl H and Degree M. “The effect of ascorbic acid on production of human interferon and the antiviral activity in vitro”. Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavica. Section B 84 (1976): 280-284.
  27. Carr AC and Maggini C. “Vitamin C and immune function”. Nutrients 9 (2017): 1211.
  28. Nualart FJ., et al. “Recycling of Vitamin C by a bystander effect”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 (2003): 10128-10133.
  29. May JM and Harrison EE. “Role of Vitamin C in the function of Vascular endothelium”. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 19 (2013): 2068-2083.
  30. Sen CK and Packer L. “Anti Oxidant and Redox regulation of gene transcription”. FASEB Journal 10 (1996): 709-720.
  31. Chen Y., et al. “Vitamin C mitigates Oxidative stress and Tumor necrosis factor alpha in severe community acquired Pneumonia and LPS induced macrophages”. Mediators Inflammatory 2014 (2014): 426740.
  32. Erol N., et al. “The protection potential of antioxidant Vitamins against acute respiratory distress syndrome: a rat trial”. Inflammation 42 (2019): 1585-1594.
  33. Blanco- Melo D., et al. “Imbalanced host response to SARS CoV2 drives the development of COVID-19”. Cell 181 (2020): 1036-1045.
  34. Kim Y., et al. “Vitamin C is an essential factor on the antiviral immune through the production of interferon-a/b at theinitial stages of influenza virus A virus (H3N2) influenza”. Immune Network 13 (2013): 70-74.
  35. Hemila H. “Vitamin C and infections”. Nutrients 9 (2017): 339.
  36. Atherton JG., et al. “The effect of ascorbic acid on infection chick embryo ciliated tracheal organ cultures by corona virus”. Archives of Virology 56 (1978): 195-199.
  37. Gan R., et al. “COVID-19 as a viral functional ACE deficiency in disorder with ACE-related multi organ disease”. Medical Hypothesis 144 (2020): 11024.
  38. Ni W., et al. “Role of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE2) in COVID-19”. Critical Care1 (2020): 422.
  39. Ma S., et al. “Single cell transcriptomic atlas of primate cardiomyopulmonary aging”. Cell Research4 (2020): 415-432.
  40. Kumar V and Jenna M. “In silico virtual screening –based study of nutaceuticals predict the therapeutic potential of folic acid and its derivatives against COVID-19”. Virus Disease1 (2021): 1-9.
  41. Grommes J and Schonlein O. “Contribution of Neutrophils in acute lung injury”. Molecular Medicine 17 (2011): 293-307.
  42. Brinkmann V., et al. “Neutrophils extracellular traps kill bacteria”. Science 303 (2004): 1532-1535.
  43. Mohammed BM., et al. “Vitamin C: A novel regulator of Neutrophils extracellular traps generation”. Nutrients 5 (2013): 3131-3151.
  44. Padayatty SJ., et al. “Human adrenal gland secrete Vitamin C in responses to adrenocortical hormone”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 86 (2007): 145-149.
  45. Holford P., et al. “Vitamin C –an adjunctive therapy for respiratory infections, Sepsis and COVID-19”. Nutrients 12 (2020): 3760.
  46. Pauling L. “The significance of the evidence about ascorbic acid and the common cold”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 68 (1971): 2678-2681.
  47. Hemila H and Chalker C. “Vitamin C for preventing and treating cold”. Cochrane Library: Cochrane Reviews (2013).
  48. Zabet MH., et al. “Effect of High dose ascorbic acid on vasopressor requirements in Septic shock”. Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice 5 (2016): 94-100.
  49. Patterson G., et al. “Low levels of Vitamin C and dysregulation of Vitamin C transporter might be involved in the severity of COVID-19 infection”. Aging and Disease (2020): 12.
  50. Domain specific Appendix: VITAMINC. REMAP-CAP: randomized embedded, multifactorial Adaptive Platform trial for community acquired Pneumonia (2020).
  51. Vizcay chipi MP., et al. “Development and implementation of a COVID-19 near –time traffic light system in an acute hospital setting”. Emergency Medicine Journal 37 (2020): 630-636.


Citation: Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “Have we done Justice to Linus Pauling’s Discovery in 1970s with Regards to Utilization of Vitamin C for Prevention of Acute Respiratory Illnesses, Besides Role of Vitamin C in Current COVID19 Epidemic - A Comprehensive Review". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 6.2 (2022): 05-15.


Copyright: © 2022 Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.316

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US