Effects of Alternative Ingredients and Processing Conditions on the Quality of Liquid Non-dairy Coffee Creamer: A Review
Thithiya Thepkamnoet1, Nor Afizah Mustapha1, Wan Zunairah Wan Ibadullah2 and Roselina Karim1*
1Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding Author: Roselina Karim, Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
November 29, 2021; Published: December 21, 2021
The demand towards coffee and non-dairy products is expected to grow during the next few years due to changing of consumers behavior and perception. This situation provides an opportunity for manufacturers to develop more new variants with improved formulas for health-conscious consumers. However, the usage of traditional ingredients especially in powdered non-dairy coffee creamer has some disadvantages mainly due to the presence of trans-fat and synthetic ingredients. In consideration of these drawbacks, liquid non-dairy coffee creamer either partially or fully substituted with alternative ingredients derived from natural sources are introduced. Nevertheless, incorporation of different types of alternative ingredients and processing conditions used influenced the quality of the final liquid non-dairy coffee creamer. This paper reviewed the effects of alternative ingredients and processing variables on the physicochemical properties, shelf life, sensory attributes, and health aspects of liquid non-dairy coffee creamer. In addition, the application of liquid non-dairy coffee creamer in hot acidic coffee is also described. This review imparts beneficial information on liquid non-dairy coffee creamer’s development using potential ingredients and optimal processing conditions in an attempt to improve the quality characteristics of the final products, to satisfy consumers' demand and preferences toward a healthier alternative ingredient.
Keywords: Coffee Creamer; Emulsion Stability; Non-dairy Creamer; Non-dairy Liquid Creamer; Physicochemical Properties
- Lim L T., et al. “Coffee: One of the Most Consumed Beverages in the World”. In Comprehensive Biotechnology. 3rd Ed, 4.22 ( 2019): 275-285.
- Pordy W T. “Low fat, low cholesterol, and low calorie dairy creamer”. Google Patents (1994).
- Markets and Markets. “Dairy Alternatives Market by Source (Soy, Almond, Coconut, Oats, Rice, Hemp), Application (Milk, Yogurt, Ice creams, Cheese, Creamers), Distribution Channel (Supermarkets, Health Food Stores, Pharmacies), Formulation, and Region - Global Forecast to 2026”. (2021).
- Mordor Intelligence. “Coffee market- growth, trends, COVID-19 impact, and forecasts (2021-2026)” (2021).
- Rosida D F., et al. “A comparative study of non-dairy cream based on the type of leguminosae protein source in terms of physicochemical properties and organoleptic”. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 9 (2016): 431-439.
- Biao Wang and Jie Liu. “Trans-free non-dairy creamer prepared from enzymatic interesterification of soybean oil and fully hydrogenated soybean oil”. Journal of Food Process Engineering4 (2014): 339-348.
- Yusoff M S A., et al. “Palm-based non-hydrogenated creamer”. MPOB Information Series 196 (2003).
- Chung C., et al. “Impact of electrostatic interactions on lecithin-stabilized model o/w emulsions”. Food Biophysics3 (2018a): 292-303.
- Soo Y N., et al. “Fabrication of oil-in-water emulsions as shelf-stable liquid non-dairy creamers: Effects of homogenization pressure, oil type, and emulsifier concentration”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture6 (2021): 2455-2462.
- Sher AA., et al. “Liquid creamer composition and process”. United States Patent, US 2013/0122178 A1 (2013).
- Allied Market Research. Non-Dairy Creamer Market by Origin (Almond, Coconut, Soy and Others), Form (Powdered and Liquid), Nature (Organic and Conventional), and Sales Channel (Supermarkets/Hypermarkets, Online Stores, Departmental Stores, Online Stores, and Others): Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2021-2027. 25 July 25. (2021).
- Thuy T., et al. “Production and Quality of Sterilized Liquid Non-dairy Creamer from Refined Rice Bran Oil”. The 18th Food Innovation Asia Conference 2016 (FIAC 2016) Food Research and Innovation for Sustainable Global Prosperity (2016).
- Wanthong, T., et al. “Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) kernel olein as a non-hydrogenated fat component for developing model non-dairy liquid creamer: effect of emulsifier concentration, sterilization, and pH”. Journal of Food Science and Technology 12 (2020): 4404-4413.
- Chung C., et al. “Formulation of food emulsions using natural emulsifiers: Utilization of Quillaja saponin and soy lecithin to fabricate liquid coffee whiteners”. Journal of Food Engineering 209 (2017a): 1-11.
- Koo C K W., et al. “Impact of sodium caseinate, soy lecithin and carrageenan on functionality of oil-in-water emulsions”. Food Research International 123 (2019): 779-789.
- McClements DJ. “Food Emulsions: Principles, Practice, and Techniques”. 2nd ed, CRC Press (2015).
- Tadros TF. “Emulsion Formation, Stability, and Rheology”. In Emulsion Formation and Stability. Wiley-VCH (2013).
- Shu G., et al. “Formulation and stability assessment of ergocalciferol loaded oil-in-water nanoemulsions: Insights of emulsifiers effect on stabilization mechanism”. Food Research International 90 (2016): 320-327.
- Chung C., et al. “Influence of homogenization on physical properties of model coffee creamers stabilized by quillaja saponin”. Food Research International 99 (2017c): 770-777.
- Williams P A., et al. “Chapter 1 - Introduction to food hydrocolloids”. In G. O. Phillips and P. A. Williams (Eds.), Handbook of Hydrocolloids. 3rd ed, Woodhead Publishing (2021).
- Dickinson E. “Hydrocolloids and Emulsion Stability”. In Handbook of Hydrocolloids. 2nd ed, Woodhead Publishing Limited (2009).
- Dickinson E., et al. “Creaming and flocculation of oil-in-water emulsions containing sodium caseinate”. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science2 (1997): 515-529.
- Huang T., et al. “Glycosylated fish gelatin emulsion: Rheological, tribological properties and its application as model coffee creamers”. Food Hydrocolloids 102 (2020): 105552.
- McClements DJ. “Whey Protein-Stabilized Emulsions”. In Whey Processing, Functionality and Health Benefits (eds C.I. Onwulata and P.J. Huth). Wiley-Blackwell (2008).
- Chung, C., et al. “Impact of oil droplet concentration on the optical, rheological, and stability characteristics of O/W emulsions stabilized with plant-based surfactant: Potential application as non-dairy creamers”. Food Research International 105 (2018b): 913-919.
- Chew S C., et al. “In-vitro bioaccessibility of spray dried refined kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seed oil applied in coffee drink”. Journal of Food Science and Technology7 (2020): 2507-2515.
- Mohammed N K., et al. “Production of functional non-dairy creamer using Nigella sativa oil via fluidized bed coating technology”. Food and Bioprocess Technology8 (2019): 1352-1365.
- Golde AE and Schmidt KA. “Quality of coffee creamers as a function of protein source”. Journal of Food Quality1 (2005): 46-61.
- Costa C., et al. “Emulsion formation and stabilization by biomolecules: The leading role of cellulose”. Polymers10 (2019): 1-18.
- Salminen H., et al. “Formation and stability of emulsions stabilized by Quillaja saponin-egg lecithin mixtures”. Journal of Food Science 4 (2020): 1213-1222.
- Schmitt C., et al. “Saponins: A renewable and biodegradable surfactant from its microwave-assisted extraction to the synthesis of monodisperse lattices”. Biomacromolecules 3 (2014): 856-862.
- Schreiner T B., et al. “Formulation and optimization of nanoemulsions using the natural surfactant saponin from Quillaja bark”. Molecules 7 (2020): 1538.
- Awazuhara H., et al. “Antigenicity of the proteins in soy lecithin and soy oil in soybean allergy”. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 12 (1998): 1559-1564.
- Kinyanjui, T., et al. “Organic Emulsifiers”. Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (2003): 2070-2077.
- Malundo T M M., et al. “Sensory quality and performance of spray-dried coffee whitener from peanuts”. Journal of Food Science1 (1992): 222-226.
- Tan T B., et al. “Effect of polysaccharide emulsifiers on the fabrication of monodisperse oil-in-water emulsions using the microchannel emulsification method”. Journal of Food Engineering 238 (2018): 188-194.
- Yang Y., et al. “Formation and stability of emulsions using a natural small molecule surfactant: Quillaja saponin (Q-Naturale®). Food Hydrocolloids2 (2013): 589-596.
- Campbell L J. “Dairy Substitutes”. In Kirk‐Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Wiley (2020).
- Tandel KR. “Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits”. Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics4 (2011): 236-243.
- Chung C., et al. “Modulation of caseinate-stabilized model oil-in-water emulsions with soy lecithin”. Food Research International 122 (2019): 361-370.
- Yulin Hu and Amarjeet Bassi. “Extraction of Biomolecules from Microalgae”. In Handbook of Microalgae-based Processes and Products. Elsevier Inc (2020).
- García-Márquez E., et al. “Design of fish oil-in-water nanoemulsion by microfluidization”. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 40 (2017): 87-91.
- Zheng H., et al. “Effect of Oil Content and Emulsifier Type on the Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Sea Buckthorn Oil-in-Water Emulsions”. Journal of Food Quality (2020): 1540925.
- Dahlawi S M., et al. “Formulation and characterization of oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by crude saponins isolated from onion skin waste”. RSC Advances65 (2020): 39700-39707.
- Reichert C L., et al. “Miscibility of Quillaja saponins with other co-surfactants under different pH values”. Journal of Food Science11 (2015): E2495-E2503.
- Reichert C L., et al. “Influence of concentration ratio on emulsifying properties of Quillaja saponin - protein or lecithin mixed systems”. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 561 (2019): 267-274.
- Zhu Z., et al. “Comparison of natural and synthetic surfactants at forming and stabilizing nanoemulsions: Tea saponin, Quillaja saponin, and Tween 80”. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 536 (2018): 80-87.
- Mession JL., et al. “Effect of globular pea proteins fractionation on their heat-induced aggregation and acid cold-set gelation”. Food Hydrocolloids 46 (2015): 233-243.
- McClements D J., “Theoretical prediction of emulsion color”. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 97 (2002): 63-89.
- Consoli L., et al. “Sodium caseinate-corn starch hydrolysates conjugates obtained through the Maillard reaction as stabilizing agents in resveratrol-loaded emulsions”. Food Hydrocolloids 84 (2018): 458-472.
- Harnsilawat T., et al. “Stabilization of model beverage cloud emulsions using protein-polysaccharide electrostatic complexes formed at the oil-water interface”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry15 (2006): 5540-5547.
- Tippel J., et al. “Composition of Quillaja saponin extract affects lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions”. Food Chemistry 221 (2017): 386-394.
- Uluata S., et al. “Physical stability, autoxidation, and photosensitized oxidation of ω-3 oils in nanoemulsions prepared with natural and synthetic surfactants”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry42 (2015): 9333-9340.
- Kleber M E., et al. “Trans-fatty acids and mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography: The Ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health study”. European Heart Journal13 (2016): 1072-1078.
- Zock P L., et al. “Impact of myristic acid versus palmitic acid on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels in healthy women and men”. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology4 (1994): 567-575.
- Fleck J D., et al. “Saponins from Quillaja saponaria and Quillaja brasiliensis: Particular chemical characteristics and biological activities”. Molecules 1 (2019): 171.
- Sonwai Sopark and Punnee Ponprachanuvut. “Characterization of physicochemical and thermal properties and crystallization behavior of krabok (Irvingia malayana) and rambutan seed fats”. Journal of Oleo Science 12 (2012): 671-679.
- Tallima Hatem and Rashika El Ridi. “Arachidonic acid: Physiological roles and potential health benefits - A review”. Journal of Advanced Research 11 (2018): 33-41.
- Talib M A., et al. “Effect of Gum Arabic (Prebiotic) on Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Yogurt (Probiotic)”. In Gum Arabic: Structure, Properties, Application and Economics. Elsevier Inc, (2018).
- Fernández, J., et al. “Colon microbiota fermentation of dietary prebiotics towards short-chain fatty acids and their roles as anti-inflammatory and antitumour agents: A review”. Journal of Functional Foods 25 (2016): 511-522.
- Ahmad A., et al. “A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine5 (2013): 337-352.
- Hannan M A., et al. “Black Cumin (Nigella sativa): A Comprehensive Review on Phytochemistry, Health Benefits, Molecular Pharmacology, and Safety”. Nutrients 13.6 (2021): 1784.