Fruit Traits at Harvest and After Storage Related to the Incidence of Postharvest Physiological Disorders in ‘Keitt’ Mangoes
Matheus Elysio Ayres de Andrade1, Bárbara Orrana Sobreira da Silva2, Tiffany da Silva Ribeiro2, Luana Ferreira dos Santos3, Augusto Miguel Nascimento Lima1, Fábio Freire de Oliveira4 and Sergio Tonetto de Freitas3*
1Federal University of São Francisco Valley, Agronomy Graduate Program, Petrolina, PE, Brazil
2Pernambuco University, Biology Department, Petrolina, PE, Brazil
3Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, Embrapa, Petrolina, PE, Brazil
4Federal Institute of Education, Agronomy Department, Petrolina, PE, Brazil
*Corresponding Author: Sergio Tonetto de Freitas, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, Embrapa, Petrolina, PE, Brazil.
October 30, 2021; Published: December 16, 2021
Physiological disorders are among the most important causes of mango postharvest loss. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify at harvest and after storage fruit physical and chemical traits related to the incidence of internal physiological disorders in ‘Keitt’ mangoes. A total of 200 ‘Keitt’ mangoes were harvested at the commercial maturity. After the harvest, one half of each fruit without the seed was cut longitudinally and evaluated, while the other half containing the seed was treated with sodium hypochlorite at 1000 μl L-1, covered with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film and stored at 10°C until the flesh firmness reached <15 N, which was considered ready-to-eat maturity. According to the results, the physiological disorders incidence after storage reached 9% for jelly seed, 9% for black flesh and 11% for spongy tissue. There were no differences between fruit with and without disorders for AA, SS, TA, and DM analyzed at harvest and after storage. Mangos that developed spongy tissue had at harvest higher skin hue angle, lower levels of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and Ca/B ratio, as well as higher levels of manganese (Mn) and N/Ca, K/Mg, K/Ca ratios, compared to sound fruit. Mangoes that developed jelly seed symptoms had at harvest lower levels of total extractable polyphenols (TEP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Ca, Mg, Zn, as well as higher Mn levels and N/Ca, Ca/Mg, K/Mg, K/Ca ratios, compared to sound fruit. Flesh nutrient concentrations remained the same in each fruit from harvest to the end of storage. After storage, mangos with jelly seed symptoms showed higher skin hue angle and TEP levels, as well as lower TAC, compared to healthy fruit. Mangos that developed black flesh symptoms had higher levels of N, Mn and N/Ca, K/Mg, K/Ca ratios, as well as lower Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca/B ratios at harvest, compared to sound mangoes. After storage, mangoes with black flesh symptoms had darker skin (lower L) and lower skin C and b values, as well as higher TEP levels, compared to sound fruit. In conclusion, the skin hue angle and TEP levels in flesh tissue have the potential to predict at harvest and determined after storage the incidence of spongy tissue and jelly seed in 'Keitt' mangoes, respectively. Skin L, C and b values have the potential to non-destructively determine the presence of black flesh in ready-to-eat 'Keitt' mangoes. Mangoes that developed black flesh, jelly seed and spongy tissue during storage had at harvest low levels of Ca, Mg, and Zn, as well as high Mn levels, compared to healthy fruit. More studies are required to determine the level of each physicochemical and nutritional trait that can be used as an index to predict at harvest or identify ready-to-eat fruit with physiological disorders.
Keywords: Black Flesh; Jelly Seed; Spongy Tissue; Internal Physiological Disorders
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