Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 1

Evaluation of Some Physico-chemical and Antioxidant Characteristics of Commercial Honey Samples Originated from Different Regions of Turkey

Mehmet Gültekin Bilgin1, Ayşe Güneş Bayır2*, Bilge Özkan3, Zeynep Özman4, Fatmanur Babalı Balıbey4, Feyzanur Turgay5, İrem Karakaş5, Nesrin Köse5, Tülay Sevinç5, Tuğbanur Selçuk5 and Nezire Öztürk5

1Assistant Professor, Bezmialem Vakif University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Eyüpsultan, Istanbul, Turkey
2Associate Professor, Bezmialem Vakif University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Eyüpsultan, Istanbul, Turkey
3Food Technician, Bezmialem Vakif University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Eyüpsultan, Istanbul, Turkey
4Research Assistant, Bezmialem Vakif University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry, Fatih, Istanbul, Turkey
5Dietitian, Bezmialem Vakif University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Eyüpsultan, Istanbul, Turkey

*Corresponding Author: Ayşe Güneş-Bayır, Associate Professor, Bezmialem Vakif University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Eyüpsultan, Istanbul, Turkey.

Received: November 23, 2021; Published: December 15, 2021


Recently encountered pandemic SARS-CoV-2 infection is a serious concern in the worldwide. In order to prevent this disease and to avoid the side effects of the drugs used during the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, humans turned to the consumption of natural foods including bee products. Honey is an important bee product rich in antioxidants, but should be suitable for consumption in terms of food control and safety. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the physico-chemical and the antioxidant characteristics of commercial honey samples originated from 7 different regions of Turkey as well as, to interpret the results with the Turkish Food Codex and European Commission Regulation. Total antioxidant capacity including polyphenols was highest in 100g honey from Agean Region (100 mmol Ascorbic acid Eq and mg Gallic acid Eq, respectively) whereas flavonoid content was the highest in honey from Mediterranean Region. It was found that 19 honey samples (63.3%) were suitable for the Codex Honey Communiqué in terms of sucrose, invert sugar (glucose and fructose), moisture content, number of diastases, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), commercial glucose and pollen analyzes. The honey samples originated from seven different regions of Turkey showed more than half good quality. Their quality depends on various factors such as floral source, geographical origin, harvest seasons, packaging, processing conditions, and storage conditions. Therefore, the consumer’s awareness and the education of beekeepers can improve the production and sales for good quality honey.

Keywords:Honey; Antioxidant Capacity; Polyphenols; Flavonoids; hydroxymethylfurfural; Diastase


  1. Ahmed S., et al. “Honey as a potential natural antioxidant medicine: an insight into its molecular mechanisms of action”. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (2018).
  2. Hashem H., et al. “In silico approach of some selected honey constituents as SARS-CoV-2 main protease (COVID-19) inhibitors”. Eurasıan Journal of Medıcıne and Oncology 4 (2020): 196-200.
  3. Koussissis G., et al. “PAF antagonists in food: Isolation and identification of PAF antagonists in honey and wax”. Revue francaise des corps gras 6 (1994): 127-132.
  4. Ahmed A., et al. “Effect of natural honey on human platelets and blood coagulation proteins”. Pakistan Journal of Pharmacutial Science 24 (2011): 389-397.
  5. Turkish Statistical Institute.
  6. Turkish Food Codex. Official gazette (2020).
  7. Da Silva PM., et al. “Honey: Chemical composition, stability and authenticity”. Food chemistry 196 (2016): 309-323.
  8. Kahraman T., et al. “Physico-chemical properties in honey from different regions of Turkey”. Food Chemistry 123 (2020): 41-44.
  9. European Union Directive (EU). European Union Directive (2001).
  10. White JW. “The Role of HMF and Diastase Assays in Honey Quality Evaluation” 75 (2015): 104-117.
  11. Costa LSM., et al. “Determination of non-volatile compounds of different botanical origin Brazilian honeys”. Food Chemistry3 (1999): 347-352.
  12. Terrab A., et al. “Characterisation of Spanish thyme honeys by their physicochemical characteristics and mineral contents”. Food Chemistry4 (2004): 537-542.
  13. Bettar I., et al. “Characterisation of Moroccan Spurge (Euphorbia) honeys by their physicochemical characteristics, mineral contents and colour”. Arabian Journal of Chemistry8 (2019): 2052-2060.
  14. Thrasyvoulou AT. “The Use of HMF and Diastase as Criteria of Quality of Greek Honey”. Journal of Apicultural Research3 (1986): 186-195.
  15. Alvarez-Suarez JM., et al. “Antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of several monofloral Cuban honeys and their correlation with color, polyphenol content and other chemical compounds”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 8-9 (2010): 2490-2499.
  16. Fallico B., et al. “Effects of conditioning on HMF content in unifloral honeys”. Food chemistry2 (2004): 305-313.
  17. Khalil MI., et al. “High 5-hydroxymethylfurfural concentrations are found in Malaysian honey samples stored for more than one year”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 8-9 (2010): 2388-2392.
  18. De Rodrı́guez GO., et al. “Characterization of honey produced in Venezuela”. Food Chemistry4 (2004): 499-502.
  19. Finola MS., et al. “Microbiological and chemical characterization of honeys from central Argentina”. Food Chemistry4 (2007): 1649-1653.
  20. Küçük M., et al. “Biological activities and chemical composition of three honeys of different types from Anatolia”. Food Chemistry2 (2007): 526-534.
  21. Kędzierska-Matysek M., et al. “Characterisation of viscosity, colour, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content and diastase activity in raw rape honey (Brassica napus) at different temperatures”. Journal of Food Science and Technology4 2016): 2092-2098.
  22. Moar N. “Pollen analysis of New Zealand honey”. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 28 (1985): 39-70.
  23. Aytop Y., et al. “Consumers Behavior Towards Bee Products Consumption in The Centre District of Kahramanmaras Province”. Kahramanmaraş Sutcu Imam University Journal of Agriculture and Nature 22 (2019): 449-455.
  24. Turkish Standard Institute. TS 3036 Türk Standartları Enstitüsü, Ankara, Turkey (2010).
  25. Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC). Official Methods of Analysis (21st Edition). Washington, DC: Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2019).
  26. Turkish Standard Institute. TS 7780 Türk Standartları Enstitüsü, Ankara, Turkey (2018).
  27. Jones GD., et al. “The use of ETOH for the dilution of honey”. Grana3 (2004): 174-182.
  28. Erel O. “Novel automated direct measurement method for total antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS radical cation” Clinical Biochemstry 37 (2004): 277-285.
  29. Singleton VL., et al. “Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent”. Methods Enzymology 299 (1999): 152-178.
  30. Park YK., et al. “Comparison of the flavonoid aglycone contents of Apis mellifera propolis from various regions of Brazil”. Archives of Biology and Technology (1997): 97-106.
  31. Gunes Bayır A., et al. “Nutritional Assessment and Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Cancer Patients Treated With Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy”. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 6 (2019): 28-33.
  32. Mandal MD, and Mandal S. “Honey: its medicinal property and antibacterial activity”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine2 (2011): 154-160.
  33. Lima WG., et al. “Bee products as a source of promising therapeutic and chemoprophylaxis strategies against COVID‐19 (SARS‐CoV‐2)”. Phytotherapy Research2 (2021): 743-750.
  34. Kambur M., et al. “Assesment of the Honey Samples Produced in Yığılca District of Düzce City by Using Chemical and Palynological Analysis”. Uludag Journal of Beekeeping2 (2016): 67-79.
  35. Santos FK., et al. “Rheological and some physicochemical characteristics of selected floral honeys from plants of caatinga”. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 86 (2014): 981-994.
  36. Özcan MM and Ölmez Ç. “Some qualitative properties of different monofloral honeys”. Food Chemistry 163 (2014): 212-218.
  37. Machado AM., et al. “Honey Volatiles as a Fingerprint for Botanical Origin-A Review on their Occurrence on Monofloral Honeys”. Molecules2 (2020): 374.


Citation: Bilgin., et al. “Evaluation of Some Physico-chemical and Antioxidant Characteristics of Commercial Honey Samples Originated from Different Regions of Turkey". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 6.1 (2022): 39-47.


Copyright: © 2022 Bilgin., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.316

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US