Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 12

Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds in Moringa oleifera Flower Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry/Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: The Need for Good Postharvest Handling

Amaechi NC*

Department of Food Science and Technology, Abia State University, Uturu-Abia State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Amaechi NC, Department of Food Science and Technology, Abia State University, Uturu-Abia State, Nigeria.

Received: November 01, 2021; Published: November 29, 2021

Abstract

Moringa oleifera flower is consumed as an edible flower by some human populations. The effect of postharvest handling was evaluated by identifying hydrophilic and hydrophobic bioactive compounds in flowers kept at ambient temperature in a cellophane paper bag and in freshly harvested flowers. Bioactive compounds were extracted using methanol and dichloromethane/methanol and the extracts were subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to separate and identify bioactive compounds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to show functional groups of bioactive compounds in the various extracts. The most abundant compounds from the methanol extract of the flowers kept at ambient temperature were 1,3-Butadiene-1-carboxylic acid, D-Allose and 1,12-Tridecadiene while the most abundant compounds from the dichloromethane/methanol extract were hydrazine-1,1-dimethyl, acetic acid, urea and isobutylamine. The most abundant compounds from dichloromethane/methanol extract of freshly harvested flowers were hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester and 10,13-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of amine, aldehyde, alkane, hydroxyl, methoxy, methyl ether, carboxylic acids, amide, organic nitrates and organic siloxane compounds. Compounds from the various extracts have been reported to have beneficial attributes for wellness which provides support for the use of Moringa oleifera flower as food. Postharvest handling in cellophane bag at ambient temperature resulted to the formation of compounds reported to be toxic such as being carcinogenic. Therefore, prior to processing such as drying, there is need for efficient postharvest handling.

Keywords:Moringa oleifera Flowers; Bioactive Compounds; Postharvest Handling; Gas Chromatography; Mass Spectrometry

References

  1. Navarro-Gonzalez I., et al. “Nutritional Composition and antioxidant capacity in edible flowers: Characteristics of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS”. International Journal of Molecular Science 1 (2015): 805-822.
  2. Alasalvar C., et al. “Compositional, nutritional and functional characteristics of instant teas produced from low and high-quality black teas”. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 61 (2013): 7529-7536.
  3. Padayachee B and Baijnath H. “An overview of the medicinal importance of Moringaceae”. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6 (2012) :5831-5839.
  4. Khalafalla MM., et al. “Active principle from Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaves effective against two leukemia and heptocacinoma”. African Journal of Biotechnology 49 (2010): 8467-8471.
  5. Leone A., et al. “Moringa oleifera seeds and oil: Characteristics and uses for human health”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2016): 2141.
  6. Puri V. “Floral Anatomy of the Moringaceae with special reference to gynoecium constitution”. Proceedings of the national Institute of Sciences of India Studies in floral anatomy II, national Institute of Sciences of India (1942).
  7. Decraene LR., et al. “Floral Development and anatomy of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae). What is the evidence for a Capparalean or Sapindalean Affinity?'' Annals of Botany 3 (1998): 273-284.
  8. Parrota JA. “Moringa oleifera Lam. 1785”. In: A Roloff, H Weisgerber, U Lang, B Stimm (Editors). Enzyklopadie der Holozgewachse, Hanbuch und Allas der Dendrologi. Wiley VohVerlag GmbH and Co KGA, Weinheim (2009): 1-9.
  9. Amaechi NC., et al. Comparative evaluation of amino acids in leaves, seeds and flowers of Moringa oleifera: Potentials in combating malnutrition. “Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Food Security and Hidden Hunger, Faculty of Agriculture, Alex Ekwueme Federal University, Ndufu-Alike, Ebonyi State, Nigeria” (2018): 220-225.
  10. Skrajda MN. “Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of edible flowers”. Journal of Education, Health and Sport 8 (2007): 946-956.
  11. Kalappurayil TM and Joseph BP. “A review of Pharmacognostical studies on Moringa oleifera Lam. Flowers”. Pharmacognosy Journal 1 (2017): 1-7.
  12. Kopka J. “Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry”. Agricultural biotechnology 57 (2006): 3-20.
  13. Mariswamy, Y., et al. “FTIR Spectroscopic studies on Aerva lanata (l.) Juss. ex schult”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2 (2012): 82-86.
  14. Hemalatha R., et al. “Phytochemical composition, GC-MS analysis, in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial potential of clove flower bud (Eugenia caryophyllus) methanol extract”. Journal of Food Science and Technology 2 (2016): 1189-1198.
  15. Orji OU., et al. “Investigations of phytochemical and nutritional composition of Ruspolia hypocrateriformis leaf”. IDOSR Journal of Applied Sciences 2 (2017): 7-81.
  16. Yugndhar P and Savithramma N. “Spectroscopic and chromatographic exploration of different phytochemical and mineral contents from Syzygium alternifolim (Wt.) Walp. an endemic, endangered medicinal tree taxon”. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 1 (2017): 73-85.
  17. Sasidharan S., et al. “Extraction, isolation and characteristics of bioactive compounds from plants extracts”. African Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine 1 (2011): 1-10.
  18. Inbathamizh L and Padmini E. “Gas chromatography Mass Spectrometry analysis of methanol extract of Moringa oleifera flower”. International Journal of Chemical and Analytical Sciences 5 (2012): 1394-1397.
  19. Ikpeazu OV., et al. “Preliminary studies on the secondary metabolites of Bucbhoziaz oriacea (Wonderful kola) seed ethanol extract by GCMS analysis”. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Applied Sciences 3 (2017): 17-26.
  20. Ishihara Y., et al. “Antioxidant properties of rare sugar D-Allose: Effects of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in Neuro2a cells”. Journal of Biosciences and Bioengineering 6 (2011): 638-642.
  21. Miyawaki Y., et al. “D-allose ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice”. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 3 (2012): 215-221.
  22. Jeong RU., et al. “Effect of D-allose on prostate cancer cell lines: Phospholipid profiling by nanoflow liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry”. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2 (2011): 689-698.
  23. Stevenson DG., et al. “Oil and tocopherol content and composition of Pumpkinseed oil in 12 cultivars”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (2007): 4005-4013.
  24. Igwe OU and Udofia DE. “Secondary metabolites of the culticular abdominal glands of variegated grasshopper (Zonocerus variegatus L.)”. International Journal of Spectroscopy (2015): 6.
  25. Belakhdah G., et al. “Determination of some bioactive chemical constituents from Thesium humile Vahl”. Journal of Material and Environmental Sciences 10 (2015): 2778-2783.
  26. Chandrasekaran M., et al. “Antibacterial and antifungal efficacy of fatty acid methyl esters from leaves of Sesuvium portulacastrum L”. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences7 (2011): 775-780.
  27. Krishnamoorthy K and Subramanaim P. “Phytochemical profiling of leaf stem and tuber parts of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam) Gandhi using GC-MS”. International Scholarly Research Notices (2014) 567409.
  28. Yu FR., et al. “Isolation and characterization of methyl esters and derivatives from Euphorbia kanusi (Euphorbiaceae) and their inhibitory effects on the human SGC-7901 cells”. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Pharmacetical Sciences 8 (2005): 528-535.
  29. Preston RJ and Ross JA. “DNA-Reactive agents”. Comprehensive Toxicology (2ndEdition) 1 (2010): 349-360.
  30. Forester SC and Lambert JD. “The Role of Antioxidant versus pro-oxidant effects of green tea polyphenols in cancer prevention”. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research 6 (2011): 844-854.
  31. Yugandhar P and Savithramma N. “Spectroscopic and chromatrographic exploration of different phytochemical and mineral contents from Syzygium alternifolim (Wt) Walp. an endemic endangered medicinal tree taxon”. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 1 (2017): 73-85.
  32. Evaluations of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA)”. Food safety and quality- Isobutylamine: Specifications for flavorings (2005).
  33. Olsen P. “Urea”. Summary of Evaluations Performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives/International Programme on Chemical Safety. TRS 837 JECFA 41/28. (2005).
  34. Asif M. “Biological overview of thiirane derivatives”. SOP Transactions on Applied Chemistry1 (2014): 1-10.

Citation

Citation: Amaechi NC. “Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds in Moringa oleifera Flower Using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry/Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: The Need for Good Postharvest Handling".Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 5.12 (2021): 112-122.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2021 Amaechi NC. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.034

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is January 15, 2022.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US