Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 11

Type 2 Diabetes, Physical Activity and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Community Dwelling Old Adults

Eymundsdottir H1*, Chang M1, Geirsdottir OG2, Jonsson PV1,3,4, Gudnason V3,5, Launer L6 and Ramel A2

1The Icelandic Gerontological Research Center, the National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

2Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

3Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Iceland

4Department of Geriatrics, the National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

5Icelandic Heart Association, Kopavogur, Iceland

6Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

*Corresponding Author: : Eymundsdottir H, The Icelandic Gerontological Research Center, the National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Received: October 05, 2021; Published: October 21, 2021



Introduction: We aim to investigate the longitudinal associations between level of physical activity (PA) and the risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia among type 2 diabetes (T2D) and pre-diabetes (PD) participants who are cognitively normal at study entry.

Methods: We used data from the Age-Gene/Environment-Susceptibility-Reykjavik-Study (65-96 years). From the original sample, 3001 participants with a complete evaluation of T2D, MCI and dementia were included in this analysis.

Results: During follow-up (5.2 years), 8.5% (n = 256) developed MCI and 3.7% (n = 111) developed dementia. T2D participants had an increased risk for MCI (OR = 1.632, P = 0.021) and both PD and T2D individuals had increased risk for dementia (OR = 1.947, P = 0.003 and OR=2.101, P = 0.026). PA was associated with lower dementia risk in normal participants only (OR = 0.611, P = 0.019).

Discussion: Older adults with PD/T2D had low level of PA and higher risk of declining cognitive function.

Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes; Mild Cognitive Impairment; Dementia; Physical Activity; Glucose Regulations



  1. Shaw JE., et al. “Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice1 (2010): 4-14.
  2. Rathmann W and Giani G. “Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030”. Diabetes Care10 (2004): 2568-2569. author reply 69.
  3. American Diabetes A. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes”. Diabetes Care 38 (2015): S8-S16.
  4. Zhao Y., et al. “Prevalence of other diabetes-associated complications and comorbidities and its impact on health care charges among patients with diabetic neuropathy”. Journal of Diabetes and Its Complications1 (2010): 9-19.
  5. Cukierman-Yaffe T., et al. “Relationship between baseline glycemic control and cognitive function in individuals with type 2 diabetes and other cardiovascular risk factors: the action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes-memory in diabetes (ACCORD-MIND) trial”. Diabetes Care2 (2009): 221-226.
  6. Strachan MW., et al. “Cognitive function, dementia and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the elderly”. Nature Review on Endocrinology 2 (2011): 108-114.
  7. Cooray G., et al. “Effects of intensified metabolic control on CNS function in type 2 diabetes”. Psychoneuroendocrinology1 (2011): 77-86.
  8. Diabetes Prevention Program Research. G. “The diabetes prevention program (DPP): description of lifestyle intervention”. Diabetes Care12 (2002): 2165-2171.
  9. Hwang MH and Kim S. “Type 2 diabetes: endothelial dysfunction and exercise”. Journal of Exercise Nutrition and Biochemistry 3 (2014): 239-247.
  10. Ahlskog JE., et al. “Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging”. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 9 (2011): 876-884.
  11. Colcombe S and Kramer AF. “Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: a meta-analytic study”. Psychology Science2 (2003): 125-130.
  12. Etgen T., et al. “Physical activity and incident cognitive impairment in elderly persons: the INVADE study”. Archives of Internal Medicine2 (2010): 186-193.
  13. Larson EB., et al. “Exercise is associated with reduced risk for incident dementia among persons 65 years of age and older”. Annals of Internal Medicine2 (2006): 73-81.
  14. Liu-Ambrose T., et al. “Resistance training and functional plasticity of the aging brain: a 12-month randomized controlled trial”. Neurobiology Aging8 (2012): 1690-1698.
  15. Nagamatsu LS., et al. “Resistance training promotes cognitive and functional brain plasticity in seniors with probable mild cognitive impairment”. Archives of Internal Medicine8 (2012): 666-668.
  16. Gasparini L and Potential XH. “Roles of insulin and IGF-1 in Alzheimer's disease”. Trends in Neuroscience8 (2003): 404-406.
  17. Helzner EP., et al. “Contribution of vascular risk factors to the progression in Alzheimer disease”. Archives of Neurology3 (2009): 343-348.
  18. Eymundsdottir H., et al. “Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, physical activity and cognitive function among older adults”. Journal of Aging Research and Clinical Practice 7 (2018): 143-148.
  19. Zhao RR., et al. “Exercise or physical activity and cognitive function in adults with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance: a systematic review”. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity 15 (2018): 1.
  20. Harris TB., et al. “Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study: multidisciplinary applied phenomics”. American Journal of Epidemiology9 (2007): 1076-1087.
  21. McKhann GM., et al. “The diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's disease: recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease”. Alzheimers Dementia3 (2011): 263-269.
  22. Sheehan DV., et al. “The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10”. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 59 (1997): 22-33 quiz 34-57.
  23. Wechsler DW. “Adult Intelligence Scale”. Manual. New York: Psychological Corporation (1955).
  24. Folstein MF., et al. ““Mini-mental state". A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician”. Journal of Psychiatric Research 3 (1975): 189-198.
  25. Reiten RM. “Validity of the trail making test as an indicator of organic brain damage”. Perceptual and Motor Skills 8 (1958): 271-276.
  26. Andrés R. L' examen clinique en psychologie. Paris: Presses universitaires de France (1964).
  27. American Diabetes Association.
  28. Binkley N and Sempos CT. “Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP). Standardizing vitamin D assays: the way forward”. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 8 (2014): 1709-1714.
  29. Harris TB., et al. “Age, Gene/environment susceptibility-Reykjavik Study: multidisciplinary applied phenomics”. American Journal of Epidemiology 165 (2007): 1076-1087.
  30. Jonsdottir LS., et al. “Do lipids, blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking confer equal risk of myocardial infarction in women as in men? The Reykjavik Study”. Journal of Cardiovascular Risk 9 (2002): 67-76.
  31. Olafsdottir E., et al. “Unfavourable risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus are already apparent more than a decade before onset in a population-based study of older persons: from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-Reykjavik)”. European Journal of Epidemiology6 (2009): 307-314.
  32. Eiriksdottir G., et al. “Apolipoprotein E genotype and statins affect CRP levels through independent and different mechanisms: AGES-Reykjavik Study”. Atherosclerosis 1 (2006): 222-224.
  33. Luchsinger JA. “Type 2 diabetes, related conditions, in relation and dementia: an opportunity for prevention?” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 3 (2010): 723-736.
  34. Biessels GJ., et al. “Cognition and diabetes: a lifespan perspective”. Lancet Neurology2 (2008): 184-190.
  35. Gudala K., et al. “Diabetes mellitus and risk of dementia: A meta-analysis of prospective observational studies”. Journal of Diabetes Investigation 6 (2013): 640-650.
  36. Cheng G., et al. “Diabetes as a risk factor for dementia and mild cognitive impairment: a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies”. Internal Medical Journal5 (2012): 484-491.
  37. Devore EE., et al. “Physical activity levels and cognition in women with type 2 diabetes”. American Journal of Epidemiology8 (2009): 1040-1047.
  38. Yanagawa M., et al. “Association between improvements in insulin resistance and changes in cognitive function in elderly diabetic patients with normal cognitive function”. Geriatrics and Gerontology International 3 (2011): 341-347.
  39. Lehtisalo J., et al. “Association of Long-Term Dietary fat Intake, exercise, and weight with later cognitive function in the Finnish diabetes prevention study”. The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 2 (2016): 146-154.
  40. Espeland MA., et al. “Impact of a Multidomain Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Complaints About Memory, Problem-Solving, and Decision-Making Abilities: The Action for Health in Diabetes Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial”. Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences11 (2018): 1560-1567.
  41. Rapp SR., et al. “Effect of a Long-Term Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Cognitive Function: Action for Health in Diabetes Study”. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society5 (2017): 966-972.
  42. Jenkins DW., et al. “Exercise and Diabetes: A Narrative Review”. Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery 56 (2017): 968-974.


Citation: Eymundsdottir H., et al. “Type 2 Diabetes, Physical Activity and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Community Dwelling Old Adults".Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 5.11 (2021): 59-66.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.316

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 30th, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US