Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 10

Individual and Combined Effects of Alpha-amylase and Biocides on Biofilms Formed by Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Brazilian Dairy Farms

Samuel Ferreira Gonçalves1, Sarah Hwa In Lee1, Lara Aguiar Borges2, Marta Liliane de Vasconcelos1, Carlos Humberto Corassin1 and Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira1*

1Departamento de Engenharia de Alimentos, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP, Brazil
2Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brazil

*Corresponding Author: Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira, 1Departamento de Engenharia de Alimentos, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP, Brazil.

Received: September 14, 2021Published: September 24, 2021

Abstract

  This work aimed at evaluating the effect of alpha-amylase (AA, 100 mg/mL), sodium hypochlorite (SH, 0.5%), peracetic acid (PAA, 0.3%), and enzyme-biocide combinations (SH or PAA and AA) on mono-species biofilms formed by four Staphylococcus aureus strains (P01F2T1, P01F5T2, P16 and P24) previously isolated from dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil. Biofilm formation index (BFI) and culturable cell counts were evaluated for biofilms formed on polystyrene microplates for 72 h at 25ºC. The BFI of isolates P16 and P24 significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after treatment with PAA or SH combined with AA, compared with the biocides alone. The biofilms formed by isolates P01F2T1 and P01F5T2 had lower BFI values (P < 0.05) after treatment with combinations of PAA + AA and SH + AA, respectively. However, significant reductions in the biofilm culturable counts were observed only for isolates P01F2T1 treated with SH + AA and PAA + AA, P01F5T2 treated with SH + AA, and P24 treated with PAA + AA. Further studies are required to define the best combinations of AA and SH or PAA to completely remove S. aureus biofilms formed on plastic surfaces in processing dairy environments.

Keywords: S. aureus; Bacterial Adhesion; Peracetic Acid; Sodium Hypochlorite; Alpha-amylase

References

  1. Gutiérrez D., et al. “Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus and analysis of associated bacterial communities on food industry surfaces”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology24 (2012): 8547-8554.
  2. Gonzalez AGM., et al. “Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Minas Frescal cheese: evaluation of classic enterotoxin genes, antimicrobial resistance and clonal diversity”. FEMS Microbiology 23 (2017): fnx232.
  3. Prezzi LE., et al. “Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus on growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in a probiotic Minas Frescal cheese”. Food Microbiology 92 (2020): 103557.
  4. Meesilp N and Mesil N. “Effect of microbial sanitizers for reducing biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on stainless steel by cultivation with UHT milk”. Food Science and Biotechnology 28 (2019): 289-296.
  5. Melo PC., et al. “NaOCl effect on biofilm produced by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the milking environment and mastitis infected cows”. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira2 (2014): 109-113.
  6. Avila-Novoa MG., et al. “Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food contact surfaces in the dairy industry of Jalisco, Mexico”. Journal of Food Quality (2018): 1746139.
  7. Fleming HC., et al. “Biofilms: an emergent form of bacterial life”. Nature Reviews Microbiology 9 (2016): 563-575.
  8. Yuan L., et al. “Mixed-species biofilms in the food industry: Current knowledge and novel control strategies”. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition13 (2020): 2277-2293.
  9. Fulaz S., et al. “Nanoparticle-biofilm interactions: The role of the EPS matrix”. Trends in Microbiology11 (2019): 915-926.
  10. Weber M., et al. “Bacterial community composition of biofilms in milking machines of two dairy farms assessed by a combination of culture-dependent and independent methods”. Plos One9 (2019): e0222238.
  11. Galié S., et al. “Biofilms in the food industry: Health aspects and control methods”. Frontiers in Microbiology 9 (2018): 898.
  12. Pagedar A and Singh J. “Evaluation of antibiofilm effect of benzalkonium chloride, iodophore and sodium hypochlorite against biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of dairy origin”. Journal of Food Science and Technology8 (2015): 5317-5322.
  13. Poimenidou SV., et al. “Variability of Listeria monocytogenes strains in biofilm formation on stainless steel and polystyrene materials and resistance to peracetic acid and quaternary ammonium compounds”. International Journal of Food Microbiology21 (2016): 164-171.
  14. Castro MR., et al. “Biofilm formation on stainless steel as a function of time and temperature and control through sanitizers”. International Dairy Journal 68 (2017): 9-16.
  15. Byun K-H., et al. “Efficacy of chlorine-based disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide) on Salmonella enteritidis planktonic cells, biofilms on food contact surfaces and chicken skin”. Food Control2 (2021): 1-8.
  16. Srey S., et al. “Biofilm formation in food industries: A food safety concern”. Food Control2 (2013): 572-585.
  17. Lee SHI., et al. “Effect of peracetic acid on biofilms formed by Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from a Brazilian cheese processing plant”. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences3 (2017): e00071.
  18. Lee SHI., et al. “Effect of peracetic acid on biofilms formed by Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes isolated from dairy plants”. Journal of Dairy Science 3 (2016): 2384-2390.
  19. Boels G. “Enzymatic removal of biofilms: a report”. Virulence 2 (2011): 476-478.
  20. Meireles A., et al. “The current knowledge on the application of anti-biofilm enzymes in the food industry”. Food Research International 86 (2016): 140-146.
  21. Sundarram A and Murthy TPK. “α-Amylase Production and Applications: A Review”. Journal of Applied and Environmental Microbiology4 (2014): 166-175.
  22. Thallinger B., et al. “Antimicrobial enzymes: An emerging strategy to fight microbes and microbial biofilms”. Biotechnology Journal1 (2013): 97-109.
  23. Fleming D., et al. “Glycoside hydrolases degrade polymicrobial bacterial biofilms in wounds”. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy2 (2017): e01998.
  24. Stepanović S., et al. “Biofilm formation by Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes on plastic surface”. Letters in Applied Microbiology 38.5 (2004): 428-432.
  25. Niu C and Gilbert ES. “Colorimetric method for identifying plant essential oil components that affect biofilm formation and structure”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology12 (2004): 6951-6956.
  26. Srey S., et al. “Evaluation of the removal and destruction effect of a chlorine and thiamine dilaurylsulfate combined treatment on monocytogenes biofilm”. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 11.8 (2014): 658-663.
  27. Witte RS, Witte JS. Statistics. Wiley: Hoboken NJ (2017).
  28. Chino T., et al. “Morphological bactericidal fast-acting effects of peracetic acid, a high-level disinfectant, against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in tubing”. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 6 (2017): 1-7.
  29. Lee J-S., et al. “Biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus on various surfaces and their resistance to chlorine sanitizer”. Journal of Food Science 10 (2015): 2279-2286.
  30. Kim CY., et al. “Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus on food contact surfaces with different surface characteristics to chemical sanitizers”. Journal of Food Safety4 (2017): e12354.
  31. Souza EL., et al. “Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus from food contact surfaces in a meat-based broth and sensitivity to sanitizers”. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology1 (2014): 67-75.
  32. Gonçalves SF., et al. “Enzyme-based approaches to control microbial biofilms in dairy processing environments: A review”. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops and Foods 12 (2020): 50-58.
  33. Araújo PA., et al. “Combination of selected enzymes with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in biofilm inactivation, removal and regrowth”. Food Research International 95 (2017): 101-107.
  34. Mnif S., et al. “Enzyme-based strategy to eradicate monospecies Macrococcus caseolyticus biofilm contamination in dairy industries”. International Dairy Journal 100 (2020): 104560.
  35. Craigen B., et al. “The use of commercially available alpha-amylase compounds to inhibit and remove Staphylococcus aureus biofilms”. The Open Microbiology Journal 5 (2011): 21-31.
  36. Combrouse T., et al. “Quantification of the extracellular matrix of the Listeria monocytogenes biofilms of different phylogenic lineages with optimization of culture conditions”. Journal of Applied Microbiology4 (2013): 1120-1131.
  37. Oliveira MMM., et al. “Biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel surface and biotransfer potential”. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 41 (2010): 97-106.
  38. Miguel EM., et al. “Formação de biofilmes em trocadores de calor e seus efeitos em leite e derivados”. Revista do Instituto de Laticínios Cândido Tostes1 (2014): 53-63.
  39. Liu J., et al. “Surfactin effectively inhibits Staphylococcus aureus adhesion and biofilm formation on surfaces”. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 11 (2019): 4565-4574.

Citation

Citation: Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira., et al. “Individual and Combined Effects of Alpha-amylase and Biocides on Biofilms Formed by Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Brazilian Dairy Farms". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 5.10 (2021): 88-94.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2021 Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.034

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is December 15, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US