Effect of Some Organic Acids and it's Mixtures as Mold Inhibiters on the Quality of Wheat Flour and Bread Making
Temraz EA2, Abdel Salam IZ1, Shahin SI1 and Elsisy TT2*
1Environmental Studies and Research Institute, Sadat University, El-Monofya, Egypt
2Regional Center for Food and Feed, Agriculture Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
*Corresponding Author: Elsisy TT, Regional Center for Food and Feed, Agriculture Research Centre, Giza, Egypt.
September 01, 2021; Published: September 24, 2021
Preservatives are most commonly used to control mold growth in baked goods so that the preservatives as an antimicrobial agent used to preserve food by preventing growth of microorganisms and subsequent spoilage. There are classifications of preservatives which were chemical and natural permitted chemical mold inhibitors in bread include acetic acid (E260), ascorbic acid (E300), propionic acid (E280) and it's Mixtures. The present review concludes the predominant efficacy and it's effects of preservatives in wheat flour and Flat bread (balady bread) by the chemical, physical, Rheological properties and sensory evaluation. Protein content of flours was ranged from (11.40%) to (12.20%). The use of 0.04% propionic acid wheat flour had the high protein content (12.20%) while the control wheat flour was the low protein content (11.40%). The ascorbic wheat treatment (2.0%) flour showed protein content of (10.7%) and had the high Wet and dry gluten and hydration ratio (25.2, 8.5 and 1.96% respectively) compare to other samples. Data showed that the acetic acid (0.04%) dose of wheat flours was more good suitable properties for making beard than the other wheat flour treatments. However Sensory evaluation of flat bread (balady bread) were shown that acetic (0.06%) balady bread had highest total scores (85.1%) than the control balady bread 75.5% while the lowest one was ascorbic (2%) balady bread (55.0%).
Keywords:Preservative; Propionate; Acetate; Ascorbic; Wheat; Storage; Chemical; Physical and Rheological Properties; Sensory Evaluation; Flat Bread; Balady Bread
- Peter R. The Bread Baker's Apprentice: Mastering the Art of Extraordinary Bread (2001): 1-90.
- Saranraj P and Geetha M. “Microbial Spoilage of Bakery Products and Its Control by Preservatives”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archives1 (2012): 38-48.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Outbreak of aflatoxin poisoning eastern and central provinces, Kenya, January-July. MMWR 53.34 (2004): 790-793.
- Hocking AD. “Mould and yeast associated with foods of reduced water activity”. Ecological interactions. In: Seow, C.C. (Ed), Food preservation by moisture control. Elsevier, London (2008): 57-72.
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, GRAIN INSPECTION HANDBOOK I. Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, Federal Grain Inspection Service Probe Sampling, Washington, D.C. 20090-6454 (2013A).
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, GRAIN INSPECTION HANDBOOK II Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, Federal Grain Inspection Service (2013C).
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, MOISTURE HANDBOOK Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 1400 Independence Ave., S. W. Washington, D.C. 20250-3600 (2013B).
- U.S. Department of Agriculture, EQUIPMENT HANDBOOK. Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, S.W. Washington, D.C (2016).
- A.C.C. American Association of Cereal Chemists, Aproved method of the AACC 10th ed., vol 1, AACC, St Paul, MN (2000a).
- Rashed MM., et al. “Effect of wheat flour and yeast on balady bread characteristics”. Egyptian Journal of Food Science 1 (1996): 81-92.
- O.A.C. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Ed. Published by A.O.A.C. W.Horwitz. North Frederick, U.S.A. (2005).
- A.C.C. American Association of Cereal Chemists, Approved method of the AACC 10th ed., vol 2, AACC, St Paul, MN (2000b).
- SAS/stat users guide statistics system for windows version 4.10 (releasa 6.12 Ts level 0020) SAS intinc cary, North Carolina, USA (2011).
- Mahmood A. Acid-PAGE gliadin composition and cluster analysis for quality traits for different wheat varieties. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. Food Technol. Univ. Agric. Faisalabad (2004).
- Randhawa MA. “Rheological and technological characterization of new spring wheat grown in Pakistan for the production of Pizza”. M.Sc. Thesis, Dept. Dept. Food Technol. Univ. Agric. Faisalabad (2001).
- Charles Fahrenholz. “Cereal grains and byproducts: what’s in them and how are they processed?” Cereal Grains and Byproducts (2005): 57-70.
- Randhawa MA., et al. “Physico-chemical and milling properties of new spring wheats grown in Punjab and Sind for the production of pizza”. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 4 (2002): 482-484.
- Katarina V., et al. “Effects of mill stream flours technological quality on fermentative activity of baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae”. University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technology, Original scientific paper BIBLID: 1450-7188 39 (2008): 153-159.
- D’Appolonia B L and Emeritus. How Flour Affects Bread Quality Department of Cereal Science, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105, Lallemand Baking Update 1.17 (1996).
- Milatovie L and Mondelli G. “Pasta technology today”. ed. by Chiriotti-Poinerolo (To)-Italy (1991).
- Egyptian Standard of white flour for production of bread. Egyptian Organization for Standardization and Quality Control, No. 1419. Arab Republic of Egypt (2006).
- Egyptian Standard of durum wheat. Egyptian Organization for Standardization and Quality Control, No. 1649. Arab Republic of Egypt (2004).
- Indrani D., et al. “Alveograph as a tool to assess the quality characteristics of wheat flour for parotta making”. Journal of Food Engineering 78 (2007): 1202-1206.
- Oury FX and Godin C. “Yield and grain protein concentration in bread wheat: how to use the negative relationship between the two characters to identify favourable genotypes?” Euphytica 157 (2007): 45-57.
- Addo K., et al. “A new parameter related to loaf volume based on the first derivative of the alveograph curve”. Cereal Chemistry 67 (1990): 64-69.
- Branlard G., et al. “Genetic diversity of wheat storage proteins and bread wheat quality”. Euphytica 119 (2001): 59-67.
- Sara Lee. Baking Science and Technology 3rd Ed. vols. I and II. Sosland Publishing Company (2009).
- Rabie Samir., et al. Soft wheat quality factors that influence the quality characteristics of Egyptian Balady bread, Ph.D., Theses Michigan State University (1992): 244.
- Farooq Z., et al. “Suitability of wheat varieties/lines for the production of leavened flat bread (naan)”. Journal of Research in Science 12 (2001): 171-179.
- Dhaliwal YS., et al. “Methodology for preparation and testing of chapattis produced from different classes of Canadian wheat”. Food Research International 29 (1996): 163-168.