A New Low-protein Foodstuff from Processed Brown Rice for Chronic Kidney Disease
Shaw Watanabe1*, Satoshi Minakuchi2, Masaki Yamaguchi3, Hiromasa Uchiyama4, Tomitsu Haramoto5, Kazunori Egawa6 and Ken’ichi Otsubo7
1Tokyo University of Agriculture, Agricultural Life Science Institute, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan
2Ehime Research Institute of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Ehime, Japan
3Biotec Japan, Niigata, Japan
4Forica Co. Ltd., Niigata, Japan
5Tomitsu Haramoto, Kanagawa, Japan
6Egawa Technical Office, Niigata, Japan
7Niigata University of Pharmacy and LifeScience, Niigata, Japan
*Corresponding Author: Shaw Watanabe, President, Medical Rice Association, Visiting Professor, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Japan.
July 07, 2021; Published: July 19, 2021
Aims: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing in prevalence worldwide, not only as a complication of diabetes and end-stage glomerulonephritis but also as a typical degenerative process in the elderly. A low-protein diet is essential for the prevention and delay of CKD. As rice is the leading staple food in many countries, low-protein rice should be considered for dietary therapy. Brown rice, in particular, contains many functional factors for health, so that low-protein brown rice could provide additional benefits for CKD patients.
Methods: Four steps are necessary to produce low-protein brown rice of high quality: selection of rice cultivar, surface treatment of brown rice with a penetrating enzyme solution, protein extraction, and hygienic packaging. We developed a new low-protein brown rice (LPBR) product using protease treatment and Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation.
Results: LPBR maintained the high energy content of rice. While it provided the lowest protein content possible (0.2 g/100 g of boiled rice), almost no potassium (0.5 mg/100 g boiled rice), and less than 1/5 of usual phosphate contents (17 mg/100 g boiled rice). In addition, toxic metals such as antimony and cadmium were not present. Like common brown rice brands, the new product had high dietary fibers (1.0 g/100 g boiled rice), g-oryzanol (6.3 mg/100g boiled rice), and antioxidant activity (300 ORAC Unit).
Conclusion: A low-protein diet has been known to be effective for the prevention of CKD. LPBR could provide enough energy with low protein, low potassium, low phosphate. Furthermore, the remaining dietary fibers, g-oryzanol, and antioxidant activity could have sound effects to stabilize intestinal microbiota, short-chain fatty acids, and innate immunity.
Keywords:Low-protein Brown Rice; Lactobacillus; Enzyme Solution; Chronic Kidney Disease; Dietary Therapy; Himeiku-83
- Jha V., et al. “Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives”. Lancet 382 (2013): 260-272.
- Zhang QL and Rothenbacher D. “Prevalence of chronic kidney disease in population-based studies: systematic review”. BMC Public Health 8 (2008): 117.
- Levey AS., et al. “Chronic kidney disease as a global public health problem: approaches and initiatives—a position statement from kidney disease improving global outcomes”. Kidney International 72 (2007): 247-259.
- El Nahas M. “The global challenge of chronic kidney disease”. Kidney International 68 (2005): 2918-2929.
- Zimmer P., et al. “Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic”. Nature 414 (2001): 782-787.
- Atkins RC., et al. “World Kidney Day 2010: diabetic kidney disease-act now or pay later”. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 55 (2010): 205-208.
- Bilous R. “Microvascular disease: what does the UKPDS tell us about diabetic nephropathy?” Diabetic Medicine 25 (2000): 25-29.
- Couser WG., et al. “The contribution of chronic kidney disease to the global burden of major non-communicable diseases”. Kidney International 80 (2011): 1258-1270.
- Watanabe S. “Low-protein diet for the prevention of renal failure”. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B 93 (2017): 1-9.
- Dietary Reference Intake of Japanese (2020).
- “Low-Protein Diets for Adults Without Diabetes Mellitus Who Have CKD”. American Family Physician11 (2020): 665-666.
- “Japan Nephrology Society Dietary recommendations for chronic kidney disease”. Japanese Society of Nephrology (Nichi-jin-kai-shi) 56 (2014): 553-599.
- Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Standard of foods for diseased (2007).
- Biotech Japan. “Low protein brown rice”. Processing Methods P4443398 12 (2004).
- Morita Y. “Proteins in rice seeds”. Nippon Jozou Kyokai10 (1972): 843-847.
- Tanaka K and Masumura T. “Mechanisms of protein accumulation in rice crop”. Kagaku to Seibutsu8 (1988): 543-550.
- Minakuchi S and Nakaya N. “New rice varieties with low levels of easy-to-digest protein”. 'Himeiku 83' Bull. Ehime Res. Inst. Agric. Forest. Fish.
- Saika K and Watanabe S. “Producing rinse-free rice by the bran-grind method: A way to stop environmental pollution from rice industry wastewater”. Advances in Food Technology and Nutritional Sciences – Open Journal 1 (2017): 45-50.
- Hoshino H and Gochou H. “Change of the bacteria by the difference of washing times and preservation condition to cooled rice”. Seitoku Eiyo Tanki Daigaku Kiyou 6 (2014): 11-17.
- Sakuma K., et al. “Effect of cooking water pH on commercial sterility in the production of cooked rice packed under semi-aseptic condition. Nihon Shokuhin Kogyo Kaishi3 (2008): 157-165.
- Japan Food Research Laboratory (2020).
- Food Analysis Technology Center SUNATEC, Yokkaichi-shi, Mie (2020).
- NIH National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Antioxidants: In-Depth (2020).
- Terashima M., et al. “New method to evaluate water-soluble antioxidant activity based on protein structural change”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry1 (2007): 165-169.
- Watanabe J., et al. “Method validation by interlaboratory studies of improved hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity methods for the determination of antioxidant capacities of antioxidant solutions and food extracts”. Annals of Science2 (2012): 159-165.
- Takei N., et al. “Low-protein rice (LPR) product: Processing method and product safety”. Advances in Food Technology and Nutritional Sciences – Open Journal 1 (2017): 33-41.
- Watanabe S., et al. “Medical rice: a new wax-free brown rice and its protein reduced rice”. Advances in Food Technology and Nutritional Sciences – Open Journal 1 (2018): 10-16.
- van der Velde M., et al. “Screening for albuminuria identifies individuals at increased renal risk”. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 20 (2009): 852-862.
- Romundstad S., et al. “Microalbuminuria, and all-cause mortality in 2,089 apparently healthy individuals: a 44-year follow-up study. The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT), Norway”. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 42 (2003): 466-473.
- Gansevoort RT and de Jong PE. “The case for using albuminuria instaging chronic kidney disease”. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 20 (2009): 465-468.
- Verhave JC., et al. “An elevated urinary albumin excretion predicts de novo development of renal function impairment in the general population”. Kidney International 66 (2004): S18-S21.
- Reutens AT. “Epidemiology of diabetic kidney disease”. Medical Clinics of North America 97 (2013): 1-18.
- Hirakawa A., et al. “Comprehensive food labeling for obesity control”. Advances in Obesity, Weight Management and Control's 4 (2016): 00088.
- Watanabe S., et al. “A cross-sectional study on the effects of long term very low protein diets in patients with chronic kidney disease. Serum and urine DEXA and amino acid profiles”. Anti-aging Medicine 7 (2010): 7-13.
- Williams PS., et al. “Failure of dietary protein and phosphate restriction to retard the rate of progression of chronic renal failure: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial”. J. Medicine 81.294 (1991): 837-855.
- Hirakawa A., et al. “The nested study on the intestinal microbiota in Genki Study with special reference to the effect of brown rice eating”. Journal of Obesity and Chronic Diseases 1 (2019): 1-13.
- Kikuchi K., et al. “Changes in microbiota and short-chain fatty acids following 3-month pilot intervention study feeding brown rice ball (Omusubi) to healthy people”. La Prensa Medica Argentina 107 (2020): 1-11.
- Azadbakht L., et al. “Soy protein intake, cardiorenal indices, and C-reactive protein in type 2 diabetes with nephropathy: a longitudinal randomized clinical trial”. Diabetes Care 31 (2008): 648-654.