Assessment of Quality of Raw Milk in References to Antibiotic Residues and Microbial Loads at Farmers and Retailers’ Level in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh
KBM Saiful Islam1*, Sujan Kumar Sarkar2 and Syeeda Shiraj-Um-Mahmuda3
1Department of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Bangladesh
2Department of Anatomy, Histology and Physiology, Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Bangladesh
3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Basic Science, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Bangladesh
*Corresponding Author: KBM Saiful Islam, Department of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Bangladesh.
April 08, 2021; Published: June 25, 2021
Background: Milk is one of the most nutritious drinks in the world which is suitable for people of all ages. The quality and safety of such drink are of utmost importance for public health issues. Residual antibiotics and microbial quality of milk have thus become as major concerns to consumers. Therefore, present study was conducted to detect antibiotic residues and assess microbial quality of fresh bovine milk samples both at origin and vendors level in Dhaka city and nearby areas of Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods: A total of 150 milk samples were aseptically collected from randomly selected farmers and retailer. Antibiotic residues in milk was detected by streak plate techniques on nutrient agar plate using Bacillus subtilis as test organisms. Total bacterial counts and coliform counts were determined following the pour plate technique using nutrients agar and MacConke’s agar, respectively.
Results: Antibiotic residues were detected in 10.67% of total milk sample while 18% of farmers’ milk and 7% of retailers’ milk were positive for the same. The mean standard plate count of raw milk collected from farms and retailer were 7.63 ± 0.14 log10 cfu/ml and 8.46 ± 0.23 log 10 cfu/l of milk, respectively. In contrast, total coliform count in fresh milk samples collected from farms and retailer were 2.64 ± 0.21 log10 cfu/ml and 3.92 ± 0.05 log10 cfu/ml of milk, respectively.
Conclusion: Milk produced and sold in the study areas could be considered as of fair quality in terms of microbial load. However, presence of antibiotic residues in milk could pose human health risk. Therefore, awareness should be created on the sensible use of antibiotic and obedience to drug withdrawal period.
Keywords: Residual Antibiotics in Milk; Microbial Quality of Milk; Bangladeshi Milk; Food Safety of Fresh Milk; Milk Borne Public Health Hazards
- Nisha A. “Antibiotic Residues - A Global Health Hazard”. Veterinary World2 (2008): 375.
- Collignon P. “A review - the use of antibiotics in food production animals - does this cause problem in human health”. Manipulating pig production IX. Proceedings of the ninth biennial conference of the Australasian Pig Science Association (Inc.) (APSA), Femantle, Western Australia 23-26 November: (2003): 73-80.
- Islam K B M Saiful., et al. “Antibiotic Usage Patterns in Selected Broiler Farms of Bangladesh and their Public Health Implications”. Journal of Public Health in Developing Countries 3 (2016): 276-284.
- Islam KBM Saiful., et al. “Studies on veterinary antibiotic residues in chicken eggs and their public health significance in Bangladesh perspective”. Veterinary Medicine and Public Health Journal3 (2020): 115-119.
- Gustafson R H and Bowen R E. “Antibiotic use in animal agriculture”. Journal of Applied Microbiology5 (1997): 531-541.
- Paige JC., et al. “Public health impact on drug residues in animal tissues”. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 9 (1997): 1-27.
- Teuber M. “Veterinary use and antibiotic resistance”. Current Opinion in Microbiology5 (2001): 493-499.
- Nita KP. “Introduction to the pharmaceutical sciences”. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (2007): 301-304.
- Doyle ME. “Veterinary Drug Residues in Processed Meat-Potential Health Risk”. Food Research Institute Briefings. University of Wisconsin-Madison. Environmental Health and Human Development 1 (2006): 39-48.
- Tollefson L and Miller MA. “Antibiotic Use in Food Animals: Controlling the Human Health Impact”. Journal of AOAC International2 (2000): 245-254.
- Novotny MJ. “Clinical Pharmacology: Principles of Therapeutics”. In: Antimicrobial Therapy in Veterinary Medicine. eds Prescott, J.F., Baggot, R.D. and Walker, R.D. 3rd Edition; Iowa State University Press USA 63 (2001).
- Salman A M and Iman M H. “Enumeration and identification of coliform bacteria from raw milk in Khartoum State, Sudan”. Journal of Cell and Animal Biology 5 (2011): 121-128.
- Harding F. “Milk Quality. A Chapman and Hall Food Science Book”. An Aspen Publication. First edition (1999).
- Mogessie A. “Microbiological quality of Ayib, a traditional Ethiopian cottage cheese”. International Journal of Food Microbiology 10 (1990): 263-268.
- Prasad R. “Detection of Ecoli and Staphylococcus in Milk and Milk Products in and around Pantnagar”. Veterinary World 495 (2010).
- Abrahamsen R., et al. “Milk quality - a future approach from a researcher’s point of view”. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 16 (2007): 209-226.
- Mitchell J M., et al. “Antimicrobial Drug Residues in Milk and Meat: Causes, Concerns, Prevalence, Regulations, Tests, and Test Performance”. Journal of Food Protection6 (1998): 742-756.
- Collins CH., et al. “Counting Microorganisms”. In: Microbiological Methods, 6th edition, Butterworth/Heinemann (1989): 127-140.
- Movassagh MH and Karami AR. “Determination of Antibiotic Residues in Bovine Milk in Tabriz, Iran”. Global Veterinaria3 (2010): 195-197.
- Ondieki G K., et al. “Antimicrobial residues and compositional quality of informally marketed raw cow milk, Lamu West Sub-County, Kenya, 2015”. The Pan African Medical Journal 28 (2017): 5.
- Amonsin A., et al. “Antibiotics residues in raw milk in Thailand”. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 1 (1996): 27-30.
- Psomas IE., et al. “Bacterial flora and insecticidal residues in raw milk marketed in Guwahati city, Assam”. Indian Journal of Comparative Microbiology, Immunology and Infectious Diseases 13 (1994): 105-108.
- Khan M., et al. “Physical and microbial qualities of raw milk collected from Bangladesh Agricultural University dairy farm and the surrounding villages”. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine2 (1970): 217-221.
- Hossain MF., et al. “Microbial assessment of milk collected from different markets of Mymensingh, Gazipur and Sherpur districts of Bangladesh and determination of antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated bacteria”. Asian-Australasian Journal of Food Safety and Security 1 (2017): 7-16.
- Advisory committee on microbiological safety of foods (ACM). “Report on health risks to consumers associated with unpasteurized milk and unpasteurized cream for direct human consumption”. ACM 1008 (2010).