Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Review Article Volume 5 Issue 7

Almond (Prunus dulcis): A Nutritive Dense Dry Fruit

Waseem Khalid1*, Fareed Afzal1, Ravi Prakash Jha2, Nageen Afzal1, Muhammad Zubair Khalid1, Talal Shoaib3, Ramish Akram4, Poonam Gill5, Afifa Aziz1, Noman Aslam1 and Areeg Azhar1

1Department of Food Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
2Department of Community Medicine, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
3Center for Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
4Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Faisalabad, Pakistan
5National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agricultural Faisalabad, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author: Waseem Khalid, Department of Food Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan. E-mail: waseemkhalid@gcuf.edu.pk

Received: May 21, 2021; Published: June 11, 2021

Abstract

Almond belongs to plant-based food and is botanically called Prunus dulcis. The edible part of the almond is the seed that is composed of different nutritive and non-nutritive components. Almond seed consists of fat, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phenolic compounds. These compositional constituents of almond seed play important role in the human body. It is helpful in heart disease and diabetes because it is a good source of antioxidants and polyphenols that prevents inflammation of cells. Almond seed fiber is suitable for preventing constipation. Conclusively, its seeds are composed of many beneficial components that can reduce the chances of diseases.

Keywords:Almond; Vitamins; Minerals; Phenolic Compounds; Health Benefits

References

  1. Sang Shengmin., et al. "New prenylated benzoic acid and other constituents from almond hulls (Prunus amygdalus Batsch)”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry3 (2002): 607-609.
  2. Gradziel Thomas M. "Redomesticating almond to meet emerging food safety needs”. Frontiers in Plant Science11 (2020).
  3. Sathe Shridhar K., et al. "Biochemical characterization of amandin, the major storage protein in almond (Prunus dulcis L.)”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry15 (2002): 4333-4341.
  4. King A Douglas., et al. "Almond harvesting, processing, and microbial flora”. Applied Microbiology2 (1970): 208-214.
  5. Rabinowitz I N., et al.S. Patent No. US132,031. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (2002).
  6. Freitas Jullyana Borges and Maria Margareth Veloso Naves. "Composição química de nozes e sementes comestíveis e sua relação com a nutrição e saúde”. Revista de Nutrição2 (2010): 269-279.
  7. Abbey Mavis., et al. "Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition5 (1994): 995-999.
  8. Wijeratne Subhashinee SK., et al. "Antioxidant activity of almonds and their by‐products in food model systems”. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society3 (2006): 223-230.
  9. Davis Paul A and Christine K Iwahashi. "Whole almonds and almond fractions reduce aberrant crypt foci in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis”. Cancer Letters1 (2001): 27-33.
  10. Hyson Dianne A., et al. "Almonds and almond oil have similar effects on plasma lipids and LDL oxidation in healthy men and women”. The Journal of Nutrition4 (2002): 703-707.
  11. Venkatachalam Mahesh and Shridhar K Sathe. "Chemical composition of selected edible nut seeds”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry13 (2006): 4705-4714.
  12. Moure Andrés., et al. "Antioxidant activity of extracts produced by solvent extraction of almond shells acid hydrolysates”. Food Chemistry1 (2007): 193-201.
  13. Martinez J M., et al. "Fractionation of residual lignocellulosics by dilute-acid prehydrolysis and alkaline extraction: application to almond shells”. Bioresource Technology1 (1995): 59-67.
  14. Milbury Paul E., et al. "Determination of flavonoids and phenolics and their distribution in almonds”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry14 (2006): 5027-5033.
  15. Pellegrini Nicoletta., et al. "Total antioxidant capacity of spices, dried fruits, nuts, pulses, cereals and sweets consumed in Italy assessed by three different in vitro assays”. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research11 (2006): 1030-1038.
  16. Donovan Jennifer L., et al. "Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of prunes and prune juice (Prunus domestica)”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry4 (1998): 1247-1252.
  17. Frison-Norrie Suzanne and Peter Sporns. "Identification and quantification of flavonol glycosides in almond seedcoats using MALDI-TOF MS”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry10 (2002): 2782-2787.
  18. Harrison K and L M Were. "Effect of gamma irradiation on total phenolic content yield and antioxidant capacity of almond skin extracts”. Food Chemistry3 (2007): 932-937.
  19. Chen Chung-Yen., et al. "Flavonoids from almond skins are bioavailable and act synergistically with vitamins C and E to enhance hamster and human LDL resistance to oxidation”. The Journal of Nutrition6 (2005): 1366-1373.
  20. Heim Kelly E., et al. "Flavonoid antioxidants: chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships”. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry10 (2002): 572-584.
  21. Takeoka Gary., et al. "Identification of three triterpenoids in almond hulls”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry8 (2000): 3437-3439.
  22. Monagas Maria., et al. "Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) DA Webb) skins as a potential source of bioactive polyphenols”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry21 (2007): 8498-8507.
  23. Esfahlan Ali Jahanban., et al. "The importance of almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) and its by-products”. Food Chemistry2 (2010): 349-360.
  24. Pou-Ilinas Juana., et al. "Steam pretreatment of almond shells for xylose production”. Carbohydrate Research1 (1990): 126-130.
  25. Quesada J., et al. "Ozone oxidation and structural features of an almond shell lignin remaining after furfural manufacture”. Holzforschung1 (2002): 32-38.
  26. Martinez J M., et al. "Fractionation of residual lignocellulosics by dilute-acid prehydrolysis and alkaline extraction: application to almond shells”. Bioresource Technology1 (1995): 59-67.
  27. Cruz J M., et al. "Anti-oxidant activity of isolates from acid hydrolysates of Eucalyptus globulus wood”. Food Chemistry4 (2005): 503-511.
  28. Singh Neha., et al. "Antioxidant activity of processed dry fruits”. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 1 (2013): 112-117.
  29. Orsavova Jana., et al. "Fatty acids composition of vegetable oils and its contribution to dietary energy intake and dependence of cardiovascular mortality on dietary intake of fatty acids”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences6 (2015): 12871-12890.
  30. Bollin Bradley W., et al. "The phytochemical composition and antioxidant actions of tree nuts”. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition1 (2010): 117.
  31. Mandalari G., et al. "Characterization of polyphenols, lipids and dietary fibre from almond skins (Amygdalus communis L.)”. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis2 (2010): 166-174.
  32. Font i Forcada., et al. "Association mapping for kernel phytosterol content in almond”. Frontiers in plant science6 (2015): 530
  33. Kritchevsky David and Shirley C Chen. "Phytosterols—health benefits and potential concerns: a review”. Nutrition Research5 (2005): 413-428.
  34. Lee Jihyun., et al. "Quantification of amygdalin in nonbitter, semibitter, and bitter almonds (Prunus dulcis) by UHPLC- (ESI) QqQ MS/MS”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry32 (2013): 7754-7759.
  35. Sfahlan Ali Jahanban., et al. "Antioxidants and antiradicals in almond hull and shell (Amygdalus communis L.) as a function of genotype”. Food Chemistry2 (2009): 529-533.
  36. Takeoka Gary., et al. "Identification of three triterpenoids in almond hulls”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry8 (2000): 3437-3439.
  37. Shahidi Fereidoon. "Nutraceuticals and functional foods: whole versus processed foods”. Trends in Food Science and Technology9 (2009): 376-387.
  38. Özdemir Başak., et al. "Health properties of almond”. Journal of Hygienic Engineering and Design17 (2016): 28-33.
  39. Bes-Rastrollo Maira., et al. "Prospective study of nut consumption, long-term weight change, and obesity risk in women”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition6 (2009): 1913-1919.
  40. Holt Susanne HA., et al. "A satiety index of common foods”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition9 (1995): 675-690.
  41. Hollis James and Richard Mattes. "Effect of chronic consumption of almonds on body weight in healthy humans”. British Journal of Nutrition3 (2007): 651-656.
  42. Fraser Gary E., et al. "Effect on body weight of a free 76 kilojoule (320 calorie) daily supplement of almonds for six months”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition3 (2002): 275-283.
  43. Jaceldo-Siegl Karen., et al. "Long-term almond supplementation without advice on food replacement induces favourable nutrient modifications to the habitual diets of free-living individuals”. British Journal of Nutrition3 (2004): 533-540.
  44. Bes-Rastrollo Maira., et al. "Prospective study of nut consumption, long-term weight change, and obesity risk in women”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition6 (2009): 1913-1919.
  45. Rajaram Sujatha and Joan Sabaté. "Nuts, body weight and insulin resistance”. British Journal of NutritionS2 (2006): S79-S86.
  46. Ternus E M., et al. "Health Benefits of Tree Nuts”. Journal of Nutritional Science and Food Technology 9 (2009): 37-65.
  47. Jenkins David JA., et al. "The effect of combining plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers, and almonds in treating hypercholesterolemia”. Metabolism11 (2003): 1478-1483.
  48. Sari M I., et al. "Effect of Prunus dulcis extract against total cholesterol level in mice that given monosodium glutamate”. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 288 (2018).
  49. Chen Chung‐Yen., et al. "A nutrition and health perspective on almonds”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture14 (2006): 2245-2250.
  50. Timur Taşhan Sermin and Ayşe Kafkasli. "The effect of bitter almond oil and massaging on striae gravidarum in primiparaous women”. Journal of Clinical Nursing11‐12 (2012): 1570-1576.
  51. Hajhashemi Maryam., et al. "The effect of Aloe vera gel and sweet almond oil on striae gravidarum in nulliparous women”. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine13 (2018): 1703-1708.
  52. Korgavkar K and F Wang. "Stretch marks during pregnancy: a review of topical prevention”. British Journal of Dermatology3 (2015): 606-615.
  53. Sultana Yasmin., et al. "Effect of pre‐treatment of almond oil on ultraviolet B–induced cutaneous photoaging in mice”. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology1 (2007): 14-19.
  54. Sabate Joan and Yen Ang. "Nuts and health outcomes: new epidemiologic evidence”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition5 (2009): 1643S-1648S.
  55. Kelly John H and Joan Sabaté. "Nuts and coronary heart disease: an epidemiological perspective”. British Journal of NutritionS2 (2006): S61-S67.
  56. Knoops K T B., et al. "Comparison of three different dietary scores in relation to 10-year mortality in elderly European subjects: the HALE project”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition6 (2006): 746-755.
  57. Trichopoulou Antonia and Pagona Lagiou. "Healthy traditional Mediterranean diet: an expression of culture, history, and lifestyle”. Nutrition Reviews11 (1997): 383-389.
  58. Estruch Ramon., et al. "Effects of a Mediterranean-style diet on cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized trial”. Annals of Internal Medicine1 (2006): 1-11.
  59. Salas-Salvadó Jordi., et al. "Effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts on metabolic syndrome status: one-year results of the PREDIMED randomized trial”. Archives of Internal Medicine22 (2008): 2449-2458.
  60. Due Anette., et al. "Comparison of the effects on insulin resistance and glucose tolerance of 6-mo high-monounsaturated-fat, low-fat, and control diets”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition4 (2008): 855-862.

Citation

Citation: Waseem Khalid., et al. “Almond (Prunus dulcis): A Nutritive Dense Dry Fruit".Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 5.7 (2021): 38-46.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2021 Waseem Khalid., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.034

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is December 15, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US