Nicklas TA1*, O’Neil CE2, Saab R1 and Fulgoni VL III3
1USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine,
2Louisiana State University Agricultural Center (Emeritus), Baton Rouge, USA
3Nutrition Impact, Battle Creek, USA
*Corresponding Author: Nicklas TA, Professor of Pediatrics, USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.
Received: November 25, 2020; Published: December 22, 2020
Introduction: No studies have looked at trends in nutrient intakes, orange juice (OJ) consumption and nutrient adequacy in adults overtime.
Methods: The purpose of this study was to examine secular trends in nutrient intakes, OJ consumption, and nutrient adequacy in adults 19 plus years participating in the 2003-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Results: Approximately 13% of the total sample consumed OJ with a mean intake of 39.5 g/d (76.2 KJ [0.89% of total energy intake]). Amounts of all 100% fruit juices consumed decreased and whole fruit intake increased from 2003-2016. Intake of total energy, total carbohydrates, added sugars decreased. Intakes of folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin C decreased and intakes of niacin and vitamin B6 increased. Intakes of iron, sodium, and zinc decreased and intake of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus increased. Percentage of adults below the EAR decreased for ten nutrients (i.e. folate, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamins B6, and D, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous and zinc) and the percent above the AI increased for two nutrients (i.e. dietary fiber and sodium) across the deciles of OJ consumption. OJ, other 100% fruit juices, fruits, breads/rolls/tortillas, and ready-to-eat cereals were major food sources of many nutrients that were consumed at levels below recommendations.
Conclusion: There were changes in intake and nutrient adequacy among adults overtime which varied by OJ consumption. Food patterns varied among consumers and non-consumers suggesting that studies looking at the consumption versus non-consumption of foods need to look at food patterns within the context of the total diet.
Keywords: Orange Juice Consumption; 100% Fruit Juice Consumption; Secular Trends; Nutrient Intake; Nutrient Adequacy; NHANES
Citation: Nicklas TA., et al. “Trends in Orange Juice Consumption and Nutrient Adequacy in Adults 2003-2016".Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 5.1 (2021): 23-45.
Copyright: © 2021 Nicklas TA., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.