Nguyen Thi Minh Tu1*, Kieu Thi Hoang Yen1, Tran Huong Nga1, Le Tat Thanh2 and Dang Thi Thu2
1School of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam
2Institute of Natural Products Chemistry, Vietnam Academic of Science and Technology, Vietnam
*Corresponding Author: Nguyen Thi Minh Tu, School of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam.
Received: September 22, 2020; Published: October 28, 2020
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds’ hydrolysis condition was investigated in order to achieve oil containing high content of phytosterol by using enzyme bromelain and amylase. For this purpose, hydrolysis conditions of bromelain and amylase including ratio of C. pepo to water, ratio of concentration of the enzyme bromelain/amylase to substance, temperature, pH, hydrolysis time were investigated.
Bromelain hydrolysis of C. pepo seeds with 1.75% enzyme at 55oC for 7hrs at pH of 7 gave 27.83% oil and 1909.95 mg phytosterol in 100 g oil. For amylase hydrolysis these figures were 0.9%; 50oC; 5.5 hrs and 7, respectively; and the oil yield was 14.02% with 2245.03 mg phytosterol in 100 g oil.
Although oil yield by using enzyme bromelain (27.83%) and enzyme amylase (14.02%) was lower than that by using solvent and ultrasonic methods (26.57% to 42.74%), phytosterol content inversely was as 2 to 3 times as higher (631.41 - 772.78 to 19909.95 - 2245.03 mg/100g oil). Fourteen compounds were found in phytosterol mixture obtained by amylase hydrolysis, among them three important e.g. campesterol, stigmasterol, β - sitosterol accounted for 315.460, 120.111 and 189.987 mg/100g oil respectively.
Keywords: Amylase; Bromelain; Oil of Pumpkin Seed; Phytosterol
1. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). "Pumpkins, squash and gourds”. (2018).2. LT Phong., et al. “Pumpkin production: potential and challenges”. Journal of Vietnam Agriculture Science and Technology 2 (2011): 46-50.3. KM Phillips., et al. “Phytosterol composition of nuts and seed commonly consumed in the United States”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53.24 (2005): 9436-9445.4. N Hrabovski., et al. “Phytosterols in pumpkin seed oil extracted by organic solvents and supercritical CO2”. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 114 (2012): 1024-1211.5. N Nakic., et al. “Chemical characteristics of oils from naked and husk seeds of Cucurbita pepo L”. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 108.11 (2006): 936-943.6. P Laakso. "Analysis of sterols from various food matrices”. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 107.6 (2015): 402-410.7. J QuÍlez., et al. “Potential uses and benefits of phytosterols in diet: present situation and future directions”. Clinical Nutrition 22.4 (2003): 343-351.8. CE Cabral and M RST Klein. "Phytosterols in the Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases”. Journal of Brazilian society of Cardiology 109.5 (2017): 475-482.9. H Gylling., et al. “Plant sterols and plant stanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease”. Atherosclerosis 232.2 (2014): 346-360.10. R Moreau., et al. “Phytosterols and their derivatives: Structural diversity, distribution, metabolism, analysis, and health-promoting uses”. Progress in Lipid Research 70 (2018): 35-61.11. D Heimburger and A Jamy. "Handbook of Clinical Nutrition”. 4th Edition (2006): 422-447. 12. MA Alfawaz. "Chemical composition and Oil Characteristics of Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) Seed Kernels". Food Sci and Agric. Res. Center, King Saud Univ 129 (2004): 5-18.13. T S Cynthia and A H Ermias. "Quanitification of plant sterols/stanols in foods and dietary supplements containing added phytosterol”. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 40 (2015): 163-176.14. FDA (Food and Drug Administration). "Health claims: plant sterol/ stanol essters and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)”. CFR. Title 21.2 (2019).15. MJ Lagarda., et al. “Analysis of phytosterols in food”. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 41 (2006): 1486-1496.16. Munger M Linda., et al. “Enzymatic hydrolysis of steryl glycosides for their analysis in foods”. Food Chemistry 163 (2014): 202-211. 17. LTL Thuy. "Research and develop technological process for producing oil from pumpkin seeds by enzyme method”. Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 7318 (2008).18. K Zakeri., et al. “Optimization of Hydrolysis Condition of Pumpkin Seeds with Alcalase Enzyme to Achieve Maximum Antioxidant and Nitric Oxide Inhibition Activity Kosar”. Journal of Research and Innovation in Food Science and Technology 7 (2018): 445-458.19. H. D. Tu and partners, Phân tích hóa học thực phẩm, 3rd Edition, Publishing Scientific and Technical, Hanoi, Vietnam (2009).20. EG Bligh and WJ Dyer. "A rapid method for total lipid extraction and purification”. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 37 (1959): 911-917.21. Bradford and MM. "A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding”. Analytical Biochemistry 72 (1976): 248-254.22. GL Miller. "Use of Dinitrosalicylic Acid Reagent for Determination of Reducing Sugar”. Analysis Chemistry 31 (1959): 426-428.23. Habib S., et al. “Nutritional and Lipid Composition Analysis of Pumpkin Seed (Cucurbita maxima Linn)”. Journal of Nutrition and Food Science 5.4 (2015).
Citation: Nguyen Thi Minh Tu., et al. “Bromelain and Amylase Assisted Extraction of Cucurbita pepo Seed Oil Enriched with Phytosterol".Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 4.11 (2020): 50-56.
Copyright: © 2020 Nguyen Thi Minh Tu., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.