Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 10

Effectual Gold Nanoprobe Sensor for Screening Cow Milk Adulteration in Goat Milk

Jose Manuel Llopis Ortiz*, Dimitra Panagiotis Houhoula, Efstathia Tsakali and Sophie Pytel

Department of Food Technology, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Greece

*Corresponding Author: Department of Food Technology, Technological Educational Institution of Athens, Greece

Received: August 19, 2020; Published: September 16, 2020

×

Abstract

Different methods of detection have been used to detect milk adulteration, but in recent years the use of nanomaterials has demonstrated to be an interesting tool in this field, because of their interesting optical properties. A gold nanoparticle (AuNP) probe strategy for testing milk authenticity was developed, which relies on the colorimetric differentiation of a particular DNA sequence, due to the differential aggregation profiles exhibited by the AuNPs in the presence or absence of specific target hybridization. Gold nanoparticles were conjugated with thiolated oligonucleotides which specifically amplify a 271 bp fragment of cow mitochondrial DNA. In the presence of a complementary target preventing aggregation of the AuNPs when acid was added, the reaction mixtures retained the original pink coloration of the colloidal particles, whereas they turned purple in the opposite event. Negative and goat reaction mixtures showed a purplish coloured solution with a peak at ≥570nm, while samples containing bovine DNA have an absorbance closer to the characteristic peak of the AuNPs at 520-525 nm. Presence of bovine milk even at traces levels was detected, achieving a level of detection comparable with PCR + Electrophoresis. The use of AuNPs for the colorimetric detection of DNA targets from undeclared species in milk products provides an inexpensive and easy-toperform alternative to common molecular assays. However, the tested oligonucleotides only proved to be effective under very concrete conditions, due to their low specificity. The technology described here can be further developed and more specific oligonucleotides are advised to be tested. Even though, this method offers the possibility to accommodate for detection of many cases of adulteration and fraudulent practices in different food matrices.

Keywords: Gold Nanoparticles; Food Authentication; Goat Milk Adulteration; Detection Limit

×

References

  1. EU Science Hub - European Commission - New monthly report on food fraud and authenticity (2016).
  2. Neumann CG., et al. “Contribution of animal source foods in improving diet quality and function in children in the developing world”. Nutrition Research12 (2002): 193-220.
  3. Afzal A., et al. “Adulteration and Microbiological Quality of Milk (A Review)”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 12 (2011): 1195-1202.
  4. Borková M and Snáselová J. “Possibilities of Different Animal Milk Detection in Milk”. Czech Journal of Food Science2 (2005): 41-50.
  5. Cheng YH., et al. “Investigation of goats' milk adulteration with cows' milk by PCR”. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 19 (2006): 1503-1507.
  6. Haenlein, GFW. “Goat milk in human nutrition”. Small Ruminant Research 51 (2004): 155-163.
  7. Pesic M., et al. “Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bovine milk adulteration in caprine and ovine milks using native-PAGE”. Food Chemistry4 (2011): 1443-1449.
  8. Sampson HA. “Food Allergy”. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2 (2003): 540-547.
  9. Rance F., et al. “Prevalence and main characteristics of schoolchildren diagnosed withfood allergies in France”. Clinical Experimental Allergy 2 (2005): 165172.
  10. Darwish SF., et al. “Evaluation of PCR Assay for Detection of Cow's Milk in Water Buffalo's Milk”. World Applied Sciences Journal4 (2009): 461-467.
  11. Golinelli LP., et al. “Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese”. Journal of Dairy Science11 (2004): 6693-6699.
  12. Salih MAM and Yang S. “Common Milk Adulteration in Developing Countries Cases Study in China and Sudan: A Review”. Journal of Advances in Dairy Research4 (2017).
  13. Stanciuc N and Rapeanu G. “Identification of adulterated sheep and goat cheeses marketed in Romania by immunocromatographic assay”. Food and Agricultural Immunology2 (2010): 157164.
  14. Xue H., et al. “Indirect ELISA for Detection and Quantification of Bovine Milk in Goat Milk”. Journal of Food Science and Technology 24 (2010): 370-373.
  15. Zeleňáková L and Golian, J. “Application of ELISA tests for detection of milk and cheese adulteration”. Science Monograph. SPU Nitra. 98 (2008).
  16. Hurley IP., et al. “Measurement of bovine IgG by indirect competitive ELISA as a means of detecting milk adulteration”. Journal of Dairy Science3 (2004): 215-221.
  17. Mayer HK. “Milk species identification in cheese varieties using electrophoretic, chromatographic and PCR techniques”. International dairy journal 15 (2005): 595-604.
  18. Enne G., et al. “High-performance liquid chromatography of governing liquid to detect illegal bovine milk's addition in water buffalo Mozzarella: comparison with results from raw milk and cheese matrix”. Journal of Chromatography A 1094 (2005): 169-178.
  19. Poonia A., et al. “Detection of adulteration in milk: A review”. International Journal of Dairy Technology1 (2016).
  20. Das S., et al. “Milk Adulteration and Detection: A Review”. Sensor Letters1 (2016d): 4-18.
  21. López-Calleja I., et al. “Rapid Detection of Cows’ Milk in Sheeps’ and Goats’ Milk by a Species-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Technique”. Journal of Dairy Science9 (2004): 2839-2845.
  22. Ali ME., et al. “Nanobiosensor for the detection and quantification of pork adulteration in meatball formulation”. Journal of Experimental Nanoscience2 (2014): 152-160.
  23. Ali ME., et al. “Gold Nanoparticle Sensor for the Visual Detection of Pork Adulteration in Meatball Formulation”. Journal of Nanomaterials 7 (2012).
  24. Ali ME., et al. “Nanoparticle sensor for label free detection of swine DNA in mixed biological samples”. Nanotechnology19 (2011).
  25. Houhoula DP., et al. “Effectual Gold Nanoprobe Sensor for Screening Horse Adulteration in Meat Products”. Journal of Food Research4 (2017).
  26. Zeng S., et al. “A Review on Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles for Biosensing Applications”. Plasmonics 6 (2011): 491-506.
  27. Lahiff S., et al. “Species-specific PCR for the identification of ovine, porcine and chicken species in meta and bone meal (MBM)”. Molecular and Cellular Probes1 (2001): 27-35.
  28. Kušec ID., et al. “Efficiency of PCR-RFLP and Species-specific PCR for the Identification of Meat Origin in Dry Sausages”. Czech Journal of Food Sciences5 (2017): 386-391.
  29. Hill HD and Mirkin CA. “The bio-barcode assay for the detection of protein and nucleic acid targets using DTT-induced ligand exchange”. Nature Protocols1 (2006): 324-36.
  30. Mašková E and Paulíčková I. “PCR-Based Detection of Cow’s Milk in Goat and Sheep Cheeses Marketed in the Czech Republic”. Czech Journal of Food Science3 (2006): 127-132.
  31. Bohren, CF and Huffman DR. Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles New York: John Wiley and Sons (1983).
  32. Li H., et al. “Label-free colorimetric detection of specific sequences in genomic DNA amplified by the polymerase chain reaction”. Journal of the American Chemical Society35 (2004): 10958-10961.
  33. Sato K., et al. “Rapid Aggregation of Gold Nanoparticles Induced by Non-CrossLinking DNA Hybridization”. Journal of the American Chemical Society27 (2005): 8102-8103.
  34. Quinten M and Kreibig U. “Optical properties of aggregates of small metal particles”. Surface Science3 (1986): 557-577.
  35. Elliot DC. “It’s time for fixed definitions for food fraud and food integrity” (2017).
  36. Ercsey-Ravasz M., et al. “Complexity of the International Agro-Food Trade Network and Its Impact on Food Safety”. PLoS One5 (2012).
  37. Feligini M., et al. “Detection of Adulteration in Italian Mozzarella Cheese Using Mitochondrial DNA Templates as Biomarkers”. Food Technology and Biotechnology1 (2012).
×

Citation

Citation: Jose Manuel Llopis Ortiz., et al. “Effectual Gold Nanoprobe Sensor for Screening Cow Milk Adulteration in Goat Milk".Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 4.10 (2020): 37-43.




Metrics

Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.034

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is December 15, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US