x Acta Scientific | International Open Library | Open Access Journals Publishing Group

Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 8

Complementary Feeding Practices Associated with Wasting of Children 6 - 23 Months Old in Dilala, Lualaba Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2017

Ngoy Bulaya Emmanuel1,3*, Horwood Christiane2, Mapatano Mala Ali3, Muyer Telo M-C3, Ntiba Assumpta Ruth1 and Mutombo Beya P3

1Nutrition Research Unit, Lubumbashi School of Public Health, University of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo
2Centre of Nutrition Research, University of Kwazulu Natal, Durban, South Africa
3Nutrition Department, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

*Corresponding Author: Ngoy Bulaya Emmanuel, Nutrition Research Unit, School of Public Health, University of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Received: July 04, 2020; Published: July 30, 2020



Background: Malnutrition is in high prevalence in some developing countries, like Democratic Republic of the Congo mostly among children from six to 23 months. Complementary feeding is among the main causes of malnutrition worldwide.

Objective: The present study aimed to assess the complementary feeding practices associated with acute malnutrition in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Design (Methodology): A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from October 23rd to November 25th 2017 in DILALA Health Zone, using a three-stage stratified sampling technique. In 10 Health Areas, 698 children six to 23 months old were assessed on nutritional status and their mothers interviewed on complementary feeding practices. Household questionnaire pretested and revised, standardized anthropometry equipment and World Health Organization recommendations were used with trained data collectors. ENA for SMART and Logistic regression on SPSS 23 were used to data analysis.

Results: Wasting was associated with lack of knowledge on minimum meal frequency (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4, CI 1.14 - 5.11), minimum dietary diversity (adjusted odds ratio = 0.23, CI 0.055 - 0.981) and protected source of drinking water (adjusted odds ratio = 0.50, CI 0.26-0.93).

Conclusion: Wasting was more increased among children whose mothers were without knowledge on minimum meal frequency of complementary feeding, but more prevented in children having met minimum dietary diversity and in children from household with protected source of drinking water.

Keywords: Acute Malnutrition; Children 6 - 23 Months; Complementary Feeding Practices; Democratic Republic of the Congo; Nutritional Status



  1. Motee A and Jeewon R. “Importance of Exclusive Breast Feeding and Complementary Feeding Among Infants”. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science2 (2014): 56-72.
  2. Liatard M., et al. “Fiches techniques Alimentation du nourrisson et du jeune enfant”. Minisante, Pronanut (2014): 1-2.
  3. Rao S., et al. “Study of complementary feeding practices among mothers of children aged six months to two years - A study from coastal south India”. Australasian Medical Journal 5 (2011): 252-257.
  4. Issaka AI., et al. “Determinants of inadequate complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in Ghana”. Public Health Nutrition4 (2014): 669-678.
  5. Issaka AI., et al. “Practices among children aged 6-23 months in four Anglophone West African countries” (2015).
  6. Butha ZA and Salam RA. “While poverty and socioeconomic inequity remains an important factor, in many cases, the presence of micronutrient deficiency is a factor of diet quality”. Global Nutrition Epidemiology and Trends 61 (2012): 19-27.
  7. Tigist Kassa., et al. “Appropriate complementary feeding practices and associated factors among mothers of children age 6-23 months in Southern Ethiopia, 2015”. BMC Pediatrics 16 (2016): 131.
  8. Semahegn A., et al. “Complementary feeding practice of mothers and associated factors in Hiwot Fana specialized hospital, eastern Ethiopia”. The Pan African Medical Journal 18 (2014): 1-11.
  9. Lassi ZS., et al. “Impact of education and provision of complementary feeding on growth and morbidity in children less than 2 years of age in developing countries: a systematic review”. BMC Public Health 13 (2013): S13.
  10. James P., et al. “Children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition with No Access to Supplementary Feeding Programmes Experience High Rates of Deterioration and No Improvement: Results from a Prospective Cohort Study in Rural Ethiopia”. Plos One4 (2016): e0153530.
  11. Langendorf C., et al. “Preventing Acute Malnutrition among Young Children in Crises: A Prospective Intervention Study in Niger”. PLoS Medicine9 (2014): e1001714.
  12. Hong Zhou., et al. “Relationship between child feeding practices and malnutrition in 7 remote and poor counties, P R China”. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2 (2012): 234-240.
  13. UNICEF RDC. “la nutrition chez les enfants de moins de cinq ans en République Démocratique du Congo”. NARRATIF COMMUN, UNICEF RDC (2014).
  14. ENN, NUTRITION EXCHANGE Équateur: Stratégies de lutte contre l’obésité; Afrique de l'Ouest: Plaidoyer pour la nutrition au sein de la société civile; Népal: Les voix du terrain (2017).
  15. PAM and INS-DRC, Evaluation approfondie de la sécurité alimentaire dans la Province de Haut Katanga, Haut LOMAMI, Lualaba et Tanganyika, Aout, PAM, DRC (2016).
  16. Dewey KG and Mayers DR. “Early child growth: how do nutrition and infection interact?” Maternal and Child Nutrition 7 (2011): 129-142.
  17. Christine P Stewart., et al. “Contextualizing complementary feeding in a broader frame work for stunting prevention”. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland (2013).
  18. Saaka M., et al. “How well do WHO complementary feeding indicators relate to nutritional status of children aged6-23 months in rural Northern Ghana?”. BMC Public Health 15 (2015): 1157.
  19. Fahmida U., et al. Effectiveness in improving knowledge, practices, and intakes of “key problem nutrients” of a complementary feeding intervention developed by using linear programming: experience in Lombok, Indonesia 1 - 3. 2015; Downloaded from ajcn.nutrition.org at Congo, the Democratic Republic of the: ASNA Sponsored on October 4th, (2016)
  20. Haile D., et al. “Complementary feeding practices and associated factors among HIV positive mothers in Southern Ethiopia”. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 34 (2015): 5.
  21. Tiwari Rina., et al. “Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among under-fives: evidence from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey”. BMC Pediatrics 14 (2014): 239.
  22. RDC MNSP MNP MNA, Rapport final EDS - RDC (2014).
  23. Ge B and Remmington T. “Early additional food and fluids for healthy breastfed full-term infants (Review)”. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 11 (2014): CD006462.
  24. Grimshaw AKEC and Maskell J. “Introduction of Complementary Foods and the Relationship to Food Allergy”. Pediatrics 132 (2014): e1529.
  25. Patrick Webb, LA NUTRITION et les Objectifs de Développement Durable de l’après-2015, note d’orientation, UNSCN, (2014), UNSCN Secretariat c/o World HealthOrganization 20 Avenu Appia CH 1211 Geneva 27 Switzerland.
  26. Saleh F., et al. “Complementary feeding practices among mothers in selected slums of dhaka city: A descriptive study”. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 1 (2014): 89-96.
  27. Mohammad Rocky Khan Chowdhury., et al. “Levels and determinants of complementary feeding based on meal frequency among children of 6 to 23 months in Bangladesh”. BMC Public Health 16 (2016): 944.
  28. Beyene M., et al. “Dietary diversity, meal frequency and associated factors amonginfant and young children in Northwest Ethiopia: a cross- sectional study”. BMC Public Health 15 (2015): 1007.
  29. Ghosh S., et al. “Improving complementary feeding in Ghana: reaching the vulnerable through innovative business — the case of KOKO Plus”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2014): 76-89.
  30. Complementary feeding Report of the global consultation Summary of guiding principles (NLM Classification: QU 145.5) (2002).
  31. Madoka Inoue and Colin W Binns. “Introducing Solid Foods to Infants in the Asia Pacific Region”. Nutrients (2014): 2072-6643.
  32. Amare Tariku., et al. “Complementary feeding practices among children in Benishangul Gumuz Region, Ethiopia”. BMC Research Notes 10 (2017): 335.
  33. Dennis J Matanda., et al. “Breast-complementary and bottle-feeding practices in Kenya: stagnant trends were experienced from 1998 to 2009”. (2014).
  34. Annual report of DPS Lualaba (2015).
  35. Lwanga SK and Lemeshow S. “Détermination de la taille d'un échantillon dans les études sanométriques Manuel pratique”. Organisation mondiale de la Sante (1991).
  36. Richard SA., et al. “Revisiting the relationship of weight and height in early childhood”. Advances in Nutrition 2 (2012): 250-254.
  37. World Health Organization: WHO child growth standards: methods and development: length/height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, weight-for-height and body mass index-for-age. Geneva: WHO, (2006).
  38. Malhotra N. “Inadequate feeding of infant and young children in India: lack of nutritional information or food affordability, India”. Public Health Nutrition10 (2012): 1723-1731.
  39. L CheikhIsmaila., et al. Leab for the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st), Anthropometric standardization and quality control protocols for the construction of new, international, fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, BJOG (2013).
  40. Lwin Mar Hlaing., et al. “Local food-based complementary feeding recommendations developed by the linear programming approach to improve the intake of problem nutrients among 12-23-month-old Myanmar children”. British Journal of Nutrition 116 (2016): S16-S26.
  41. Malick NDIAYE. Indicateurs de la sécurité alimentaire, Intégrer les programmes de nutrition et de sécurité alimentaire en situation d’urgence et pour le renforcement de la résilience, Atelier Régional de Formation: 10-12 Juin (2014), Afrique de l’Ouest/Sahel - Saly, Sénégal Programme Alimentaire Mondial, Bureau Régional pour l’Afrique de l’Ouest, Dakar (2014).
  42. Wondimu Sisay., et al. “Determinants of timely initiation of complementary feeding among mothers with children aged 6-23 months in Lalibela Zone, Northeast Ethiopia”. BMC Public Health1 (2016).
  43. Riyadh A Alzaheb. “Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia”. International Journal of Environmental Research Public Health (2016): 702.
  44. Felix A Ogbo., et al. “Trends in complementary feeding indicators in Nigeria, 2003-2013”. (2018).
  45. Motarjemi Y., et al. “Contaminated weaning food: a major risk factor for diarrhoea and associated malnutrition, Reviews/Analyses”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization1 (1993): 79-92.
  46. Mohamed Ag Ayoya., et al. “Nutritional value of locally produced foods and potential for developing age- appropriate complementary foods for children under 2 years of age in Mali”. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 31 (2010).
  47. Masresha Tessema., et al. “Feeding patterns and stunting during early childhood in rural communities of Sidama, South Ethiopia”. Pan African Medical Journal 14 (2013): 75.
  48. Shakila Zaman., et al. “Training in Complementary Feeding Counselling of Healthcare Workers and Its Influence on Maternal Behaviours and Child Growth: A Cluster randomized Controlled Trial in Lahore, Pakistan”. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 2 (2008): 210-222.


Citation: Ngoy Bulaya Emmanuel., et al. “Complementary Feeding Practices Associated with Wasting of Children 6 - 23 Months Old in Dilala, Lualaba Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2017". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 4.8 (2020): 67-76.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.316

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US