Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Opinion Volume 4 Issue 7

Self-Defense: A Practical Approach to Combatting COVID-19

Salam A Ibrahim1*, Rabin Gyawali1 and Hafize Fidan2*

1Food Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC, USA
2Department of Nutrition and Tourism, University of Food Technologies, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

*Corresponding Author: Salam A Ibrahim, Food Microbiology and Biotechnology Laboratory, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, NC, USA.

Received: May 11, 2020; Published: June 08, 2020



 In order to elucidate the importance of the immune system with regard to the spread, diagnosis, and treatment of the novel COVID- 19, this paper aims to emphasize the need for a more holistic approach to understand and treat the COVID-19. We have provided an overview of why high quality nutrition is important for the immune system to function properly. To do this, we have summarized the current evidence available from information being reported by the health authorities and studies in human subjects, to support this opinion. Though the available data in the literature is relatively scarce, we also offer our own informed opinions on the role of human microbiota (probiotics) in creating a natural immunological defense system for combating COVID-19. We thus hope that this paper will help to inspire scientists from other fields such as nutrition immunology to be involved in order to provide consumers with a more global approach to fighting this epidemic. If we want to eliminate the threat of this novel coronavirus pneumonia, we must practically address this issue itself.

Keywords: Self-Defense; SARS-CoV-2; Nutrition; Human Microbiota; Practical Approach



  1. Cui J., et al. “Origin and evolution of pathogenic coronaviruses”. Nature Reviews Microbiology 17 (2019) 181-192.
  2. Deng SQ and Peng HJ. “Characteristics of and Public Health Responses to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Outbreak in China”. Journal of Clinical Medicine2 (2020): 575.
  3. World Health Organization. “Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)” (2020).
  4. World Health Organization. “Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it” (2020).
  5. Adamson CS. “Antiviral Agents: Discovery to Resistance”. Viruses4 (2020): 406.
  6. World Health Organization. “Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) advice for the public: Advocacy” (2020).
  7. S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health. Understanding the Immune System How It Works. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 03-5423 (2003).
  8. Ali HI., et al. “The Effect of nutrition on immune system Review paper”. Food Science and Quality Management (2019): 90.
  9. Childs CE., et al. “Diet and Immune Function”. Nutrients 8 (2019): 1933.
  10. Scudellari M. “News Feature: Cleaning up the hygiene hypothesis”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences7 (2017): 1433-1436.
  11. Prescott SL., et al. “A global survey of changing patterns of food allergy burden in children”. World Allergy Organization Journal 1 (2013): 21.
  12. Coronavirus (COVID-19) (2020).
  13. Gyawali R and Ibrahim SA. “Impact of plant derivatives on the growth of foodborne pathogens and the functionality of probiotics”. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology1 (2012): 29-45.
  14. Calder PC., et al. “Optimal nutritional status for a well-functioning immune system is an important factor to protect against viral infections”. Nutrients4 (2020): 1181.
  15. Galanakis CM. “The Food Systems in the Era of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Crisis”. Foods 4 (2020): 523.
  16. Gombart AF., et al. “A review of micronutrients and the immune system–working in harmony to reduce the risk of infection”. Nutrients 4 (2020): 236.


  1. Tiffany Field. “Yoga research review”. Complimentary Therapies in Clinical Practice 24 (2016): 145 - 161.
  2. Asif N., et al. “Human immune system during sleep”. American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology 6 (2017): 92-96.
  3. Krueger JM and Fang J. “Host defence”. In: Kryger MH, Roth T, Dement WC, (editions). Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine 3 (2000): 255-265.
  4. Bryant PA., et al. “Sick and tired: does sleep have a vital role in the immune system?” Natherland Review of Immunology 4 (2004): 457-467.
  5. Everson CA., et al. “Clinical assessment of blood leukocytes, serum cytokines, and serum immunoglobulins as responses to sleep deprivation in laboratory rats”. American Journal of Physiology 289 (2005):1054-1063.
  6. Majde JA and Krueger JM “Links between the innate immune system and sleep”. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 116 (2005): 1188-1198.
  7. Ricardo JS., et al. “No effect of a 30-h period of sleep deprivation on leukocyte trafficking, neutrophil degranulation and saliva IgA responses to exercise”. European Journal of Applied Physiology 105 (2009): 499-504.


Citation: Salam A Ibrahim., et al. “Self-Defense: A Practical Approach to Combatting COVID-19". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 4.7 (2020): 33-37.


Acceptance rate30%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor1.316

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US