Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 4

Dietary Habits as a Risk Factor for Metabolic Syndrome Among Adult Urban and Rural Females of Amritsar (Punjab)

Ramanpreet Randhawa1* and Sharda Sidhu2*

1Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India
2Professor, Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India

*Corresponding Author: Ramanpreet Randhawa, Department of Human Genetics, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Received: December 30, 2019; Published: March 14, 2020

×

  Dietary habits and practices predisposes individuals to obesity and increased metabolic disease risk. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the of Metabolic Syndrome among adult urban and rural females of Amritsar (Punjab) on the basis of their dietary habits. The present cross-sectional data was collected from adult upper middle class females residing in various urban and rural areas of Amritsar district. The study group included 1520 females ranging in age (25 - 60 years), out of which, 800 females were urban and 720 women were rural. In context to dietary pattern, data was collected using relevant questions to determine eating habits of women who participated in the study. For data analysis, chi square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were applied. Odds Ratio (OR) and Relative Risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval were also done. Skipping of breakfast, less intake of fruits and salads, higher consumption of junk and fried food, intake of sugar-rich eatable post-meal, drinking soft drinks frequently and ≤2 times daily meal frequency are significant dietary risk factors for emergence of metabolic syndrome which is quite prevalent in women of Amritsar.

Keywords: Dietary Habits; Food Consumption; Cholesterol; Hemoglobin

×

References

  1. Alberti KG., et al. “Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity”. Circulation 120.16 (2009): 1640-1645.
  2. Anderson RJ., et al. “Blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial”. Diabetes Care 34.1 (2011): 34-38.
  3. Azadbakht L., et al. “Dairy consumption is inversely associated with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Tehranian adults”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82 (2005): 523-530.
  4. Bahadoran Z., et al. “Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies” . Health Promotion Perspectives 5.4 (2015): 231-240.
  5. Bahadoran Z., et al. “ Fast food consumption and the risk of metabolic syndrome after 3-years of follow-up: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67 (2013): 1303-1309.
  6. Basciano H., et al. “Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia”. Nutrition and Metabolism (Lond) 2 (2005): 5.
  7. Brown AW., et al. “Belief beyond the evidence: Using the proposed effect of breakfast on obesity to show 2 practices that distort scientific evidence”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 98 (2013): 1298-1308.
  8. Carlson O., et al. “Impact of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction on glucose regulation in healthy, normal weight middle-aged men and women” . Metabolism 56 (2007): 1729-1734. 
  9. Ceriello A., et al. “Is oxidative stress the pathogenic mechanism underlying insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease? The common soil hypothesis revisited". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 24 (2004): 816-823.
  10. Ceriello A., et al. “Meal-induced oxidative stress and low-density lipoprotein oxidation in diabetes: the possible role of hyper glycemia”. Metabolism 48 (1999): 1503-1508. 
  11. Cheong HS., et al. “Study on breakfast habits of workers and college students in Gyeongnam area”. Korean Journal of Food and Cookery Science 26 (2010): 791-803.
  12. Chung SJ., et al. “Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults”. Nutrition Research and Practice 9 (2015): 288-295.
  13. Deshmukh-Taskar P.R., et al. “Dietary patterns associated with metabolic syndrome, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study”. Public Health Nutrition 12 (2009): 2493-2503.
  14. Deshmukh-Taskar PR., et al. “Do breakfast skipping and breakfast type affect energy intake, nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and diet quality in young adults? NHANES 1999-2002”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 29 (2010): 407-418.
  15. Dhurandhar EJ., et al. “The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss: A randomized controlled trial” . The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 100 (2014): 507-513.
  16. Drummond SE., et al. “Evidence that eating frequency is inversely related to body weight status in male, but not female, non-obese adults reporting valid dietary intakes”. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 22 (1998): 105-112.
  17. Duffey KJ., et al. “Regular consumption from fast food establishments relative to other restaurants is differentially associated with metabolic outcomes in young adults”. Journal of Nutrition 139 (2009): 2113-2118.
  18. Enas A.E., et al. “Prudent diet and preventive nutrition from paediatrics to geriatrics current knowledge and practical recommendations”. Indian Heart 55 (2003): 310-338.
  19. Fontana L., et al. “Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101 (2004): 6659-6663.
  20. Fumeron F., et al. “Dairy Consumption and the Incidence of Hyperglycemia and the Metabolic Syndrome Results from a French prospective study, Data from the Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR)”. Diabetes Care 34 (2011): 813-817. 
  21. Halton TL., et al. “Potato and French fry consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women”. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83 (2006): 284-290.
  22. Holmback I., et al. “A high eating frequency is associated with an overall healthy lifestyle in middle-aged men and women and reduced likelihood of general and central obesity in men”. British Journal of Nutrition 104 (2010): 1065-1073.
  23. Jaaskelainen A., et al. “Associations of meal frequency and breakfast with obesity and meta bolic syndrome traits in adolescents of Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986”. Nutrition and Metabolism Cardiovascular Disease 23 (2013): 1002-1009.
  24. Jeffery RW., et al. “Are fast food restaurants an environmental risk factor for obesity?” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 3 (2006): 2.
  25. Kaur J. “Assessment and screening of the risk factors in metabolic syndrome”. Medical Sciences 2 (2014): 140-152. 
  26. Kim D., et al. “Dairy consumption is associated with a lower incidence of the metabolic syndrome inmiddle-aged and older Korean adults: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)". British Journal of Nutrition 117 (2017): 148-160.
  27. Kim Y., et al. “Dairy consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome: A meta-analysis”. Diabetic Medicine 33 (2016): 428-440.
  28. Kim Y., et al. “Factors related to eating breakfast of middle and high school students in Seoul”. Korean Journal of Community Nutrition 15 (2010): 582-592.
  29. Kirii K., et al. “Calcium, vitamin D and dairy intake in relation to type 2 diabetes risk in a Japanese cohort”. Diabetologia 52 (2009): 2542-2550. 
  30. Lee S., et al. “Relationship between nutrient intake and biochemical index with breakfast eating in Korean adults: analysis of data from the 2007 National Health and Nutrition Survey". Korean Journal of Food Culture 26 (2011): 94-99.
  31. Lee SC., et al. “Metabolic syndrome among non-obese adults in the teaching profession in Melaka, Malaysia”. Journal of epidemiology 27 (2017): 130-134.
  32. Min C., et al. “Skipping breakfast is associated with diet quality and metabolic syndrome risk factors of adults”. Nutrition Research and Practice 5 (2011): 455-463.
  33. Odegaard AO., et al. “Western-style fast food intake and cardiometabolic risk in an Eastern country”. Circulation 126 (2012): 182-188.
  34. Ortega RM., et al. “Difference in the breakfast habits of overweight/obese and normal weight school children”. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 68 (1998): 125-132.
  35. Pereira MA., et al. “Fast food habits, weight gain, and insulin resistance (the CARDIA study): 15-year prospective analysis”. Lancet 365 (2005): 36-42.
  36. Pereira MA., et al. “Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults—The CARDIA study”. JAMA 287 (2002): 2081-2089.
  37. Pfeuffer M., et al. “Milk and the metabolic syndrome”. Obesity Reviews 8 (2007): 109-118.
  38. Prentice AM., et al. “Fast foods, energy density and obesity: a possible mechanistic link”. Obesity Reviews 4 (2003): 187-194.
  39. Rizzo NS., et al. “Vegetarian dietary patterns are associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome- The Adventist Health Study 2”. Diabetes Care 34 (2011):1225-1227.
  40. Ruxton CH., et al. “Breakfast: a review of associations with measures of dietary intake, physiology and biochemistry”. British Journal of Nutrition 78 (1997): 199-213. 
  41. Shang P., et al. “Veganism does not reduce the risk of the metabolic syndrome in a Taiwanese cohort”. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 20 (2011): 404-410.
  42. Shim JE., et al. “Breakfast consumption pattern, diet quality and health outcomes in adults from 2001 National Health and Nutrition Survey”. Korean Journal of Nutrition 40 (2007): 451-462.
  43. Shin S., et al. “Association between Milk Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adults: Results from the Health Examinees Study”. Nutrients 9 (2017): 1102.
  44. Sierra-Johnson J., et al. “Eating meals irregularly: a novel environmental risk factor for the metabolic syndrome”. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16 (2008): 1302-1307.
  45. Smith KJ., et al. “Daily eating frequency and cardiometabolic risk factors in young Australian adults: cross-sectional analyses”. British Journal of Nutrition 108 (2012): 1086-1094.
  46. Snijder MB., et al. “Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85 (2007): 989-995.
  47. Stender S., et al. “High levels of industrially produced trans fat in popular fast foods”. The New England Journal of Medicine 354 (2006): 1650-1652.
  48. Summerbell CD., et al. “Relationship between feeding pattern and body mass index in 220 free-living people in four age groups”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50 (1996): 513-519.
  49. Toledo E., et al. “Low-fat dairy products and blood pressure: Follow-up of 2290 older persons at high cardiovascular risk participating in the PREDIMED study”. British Journal of Nutrition 101 (2009): 59-67.
  50. Tong X., et al. “Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis of cohort studies”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65 (2011): 1027-1031. 
  51. Tremblay A., et al. “Milk products, insulin resistance syndrome and type 2 diabetes”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 28 (2009): 91S-102S.
  52. Wang H., et al. “Longitudinal association between dairy consumption and changes of body weight and waist circumference: The Framingham Heart Study”. International Journal of Obesity 38 (2014): 299-305. 
  53. Whitton C., et al. “Fast-food consumers in Singapore: demographic profile, diet quality and weight status”. Public Health Nutrition 17 (2013): 1805-1813.
  54. Yannakoulia M., et al. “Association of eating frequency with body fatness in pre- and postmenopausal women”. Obesity (Silver Spring) 15 (2017): 100-106. 
  55. Zhang L., et al. “The Association between Breakfast Skipping and Body Weight, Nutrient Intake, and Metabolic Measures among Participants with Metabolic Syndrome”. Nutrients 9 (2017): 384.
  56. Zong et al. “Dairy consumption, type 2 diabetes, and changes in cardiometabolic traits: A prospective cohort study of middle-aged and older Chinese in Beijing and Shanghai”. Diabetes Care 37 (2014): 56-63.
×

Citation

Citation: Ramanpreet Randhawa and Sharda Sidhu. “Dietary Habits as a Risk Factor for Metabolic Syndrome Among Adult Urban and Rural Females of Amritsar (Punjab)". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 4.4 (2020): 72-84.



Member In




News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for March Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is April 10, 2020.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US