Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 2

Potential Shade Structures to Improve Graft-Take and the Growth of Soft -Wood Grafts in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)

Satya SS Narina1*, C Ravi Sankar1, Hanumantha Rao GV2 and M Laxmi Narayan Reddy3

1Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College, Bapatla, India
2Department of Plant Physiology, Agricultural College, Bapatla, India
3Agricultural Research Station, Bapatla, India

*Corresponding Author: Satya SS Narina, Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College, Bapatla, India.

Received: January 17, 2020; Published: January 29, 2020

×

Abstract

  Cashew is the best income earning plantation crop of south eastern tropical regions in the coastal sandy and alluvial soils. Cashew has received adequate research attention in vegetative propagation, but its improvement for higher yields and high-density planting is still a necessity. To reach this milestone in research, an attempt was made twice experimentally at the cashew research station in Bapatla to identify the best method out of two techniques of soft-wood grafting (SWG) developed with different aged rootstocks of BPP-5 and scionsticks of BPP-6 cultivar under eight shade providing structures with a control in light, temperature and relative humidity for a period of seven months in three replications. The results revealed that a lesser aged (35-45 days old) rootstock with less number (only two) of leaves was prolific to give sufficient foliage after successful graft union using SWG under HDPS (high density polythene sheet) shade nets and low-cost structure like trench and a structure with coconut fronds. Significant differences were observed for all the growth traits except for height. These structures were providing a partial shade of 10 to 50 percent with success in sprouting (65.58%) and graft-take (50.1-59.81%) in a short period of time. All these structures with high success percentage provided more than 80 percent photosynthetically active radiation to the SWGs. Major achievement is attributed to identification of (1) reduced age of rootstock at 35 days for Bapatla method and 45 days for Puttur method (2) a prior requirement of shade for 20 days (3) a low-cost structure like shallow trench was suitable for microclimate required for successful SWG in cashew in our region. In this study, the rootstock BPP-5 was potential for producing more than 80 percent of successful SWGs made during the study period. For the establishment of new orchards with high density planting, genetically competent, prolific scion cultivars with high yield potential like BPP-6 were essential, though identification of its dwarfing rootstock is still a lacuna in cashew research.

Keywords: Low Cost Methods; Trench; Vegetative Propagation; Dwarfing Rootstock; High-Density Planting

×

References

  1. Gaur NVS. “Comparative evaluation of mango propagation methods”. Punjab Horticultural Journal 24 (1984): 1-6. 
  2. Nagabhushanam S. “Vegetative propagation technique in the cashew”. Paper presentation in the seminar on cashew research and development in the coastal region 7-8 (1985).
  3. Purushottam K and Narasimha Rao. “Propagation of tamarind by veneer and soft-wood grafting”. South Indian Horticulture 38.4 (1990): 225.
  4. Seshadri KV and Rao Rama Rao. “Modified method of epicotyl grafting in cashew for commercial propagation”. Indian Journal Cashew 17.4 (1987): 11-13. 
  5. Swamy KRM. “Soft-wood grafting and nursery management in cashew”. Technical Bulletin NRCC, Putture P (1993): 1-11.
  6. Sawke DP., et al. “Soft-wood grafting. A sure technique of clonal propagation in cashew”. Indian Cashew Journal 17.1 (1985): 17-18.
  7. Khan MM., et al. “Rejuvenation of old cashew trees by top working”. Indian Cashew Journal 17.3 (1985): 9-25.
  8. Pushpalatha PB., et al. “A study on the propagation ability of cashew types to different methods of vegetative propagation”. The Cashew 4.4 (1990): 16-17.
  9. Nawale RN and Salvi MJ. “Studies on vegetative propagation of cashew nut”. The Cashew 4.2 (1990): 2-5.
  10. Adams SW. “The effect of rootstock, scion, grafting method and plant growth regulators on flexural strength and hydraulic resistance of apple”. Thesis for MS in plant science submitted to Utah University, Logan Utah. (2016): 166.
  11. Cookson SJ., et al. “Graft union formation in grapevine induces transcriptome changes related to cell wall modification, wounding, hormone signalling and secondary metabolism”. Journal of Experimental Botany 64.10 (2013): 2997-3008.
  12. Ratan J. “Studies on stone grafting in mango”. South Indian Horticulture 35.3 (1987): 192-198.
  13. Gowda BJ and Melanta KR. “A note on epicotyle grafting of cashew”. Current Research UAS, Bangalore 20.6 (1991): 119-120.
  14. Kulkarni UA and Kulwal LV. “Further studies on in situ grafting and growth behaviour of some varieties of mango under Akola conditions. Thesis abstracts”. Silver Jubilee (1989): 1969-1994.
  15. Hartman HT and Kester DE. “Plant propagation-principles and practices”. Third edition published by Printice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi 110001 (1978).
  16. Singh NP., et al. “Seasonal effect on success in different methods of mango propagation”. Indian Journal of Horticulture 36.2 (1979): 134-139.
  17. Srivatsava RP. “Propagation of mango by newer techniques”. Acta Horticulture 231 (1989): 266-267. 
  18. Venkata Rao P and Nagabhushanam S. “Further studies on propagation trials in cashew”. Indian Cashew Journal 13.2 (1982): 5-7.
  19. Swamy KRM., et al. “Evaluation of success in soft-wood grafting cashew with weather parameters”. South Indian Horticulture 38.6 (1990): 297-300.
  20. Pampanna Y., et al. “Effect of season on the success of soft-ood grafting in sapota (Cv. Kalipatti)”. South Indian Horticulture 42.5 (1994): 303-308.
  21. Sarada C., et al. “Effect of different root stocks and time of grafting on the graft-take and initial growth in cashew”. Cashew Bulletin 29.9 (1992): 18-20.
  22. Patil JD., et al. “Studies on wedge grafting in mango”. Punjab Horticulture Journal 23.1 (1983): 29-33.
  23. Patil BM and Amin RS. “Investigations into the best period for grafting of mango insitu”. South India Horticulture 29.1 (1981): 90-94. 
  24. Nageswara Rao MB., et al. “Effect of some propagation structures on rooting of stem cuttings of cashew”. Indian cashew Journal 20.1 (1988): 17-20.
  25. Maxwell Norman P and Lyons CG. “A technique for propagating container grown citrus on sour orange root stock in texas”. Hort Science 14.1 (1979): 56-57. 
  26. Seneviratne KGS., et al. “Influence of shade on rooting and growth of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) propagules”. Journal of Plantation Crops 13.1 (1985): 41-43.
  27. Seneviratne KGS., et al. “Influence of shade on rooting and growth of black pepper (piper nigrum L.) propagules”. Journal of Plantation Crops (1987).
  28. Terranova G and Caruso A. “The effect of environment and type of container on citrus seedling development. Annalidell Istituto-Sperimentale per-1”. Agrumiculture (1988): 171-211.
  29. Uzquiano MC. “An alternative to the method presently used when grafting young avocado trees”. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 87 (1974): 345-347.
  30. Satya syamala sundari Narina., et al. “Effect of graft take, potential rootstocks and a comaprtive study on grafting techniques in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)”. Acta scientific Nutritional Health 4.2 (2020): 01-09.
  31. Sundari NSS and MLN Reddy. “Influence of shade on success and growth of softwood grafts in cashew”. Andhra Agricultural Journal 50 (2003): 83-85. 
  32. Sundari NSS., et al. “Effect of time and shade on softwood grafting in cashew nut (Anacardium occindentale L.), National seminar on new horizons in production and post-harvest management of tropical and subtropical fruits 1998 (1999).
  33. Shylaja MR. Standardization of the technique of stone grafting in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L) and management practices for field establishment. Thesis submitted to Karnataka Agricultural University, Vellanikata for the partial fulfilment of M.Sc. (Ag.) (1983). 
  34. Pushpalatha PB., et al. “Studies on variable influencing success in soft-wood grafting in cashew”. The Cashew 5.3 (1991): 7-9.
  35. Mohan Kumar B and Prabakaran PV. “Determination of leaf area in pepper (Piper nigrum L) using linear measurement”. Indian Coca Areaca-nut and Spices Journal 4.1 (1980): 1-3.
  36. Panse VG and Sukhatme PV. “Statistical methods for agricultural workers ICAR New Delhi”. (1978): 152-157.
  37. Kadam SG., et al. “Studies on in situ soft-wood grafting in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L)”. Cashew 9.2 (1995): 8-11. 
  38. Jose M., et al. “Standardization of vegetative propagation technique in Jack (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.)”. Punjab Horticulture Journal 31.1-4 (1991): 145-147.
  39. Senanayake YDA and Kirti Singhe JP. “Effect of shade and irrigation on black pepper (Piper nigrum L) cuttings”. Journal of Plantation Crops 11.2 (1983): 105-108.
  40. Panicker P and Deasi AG. “Effect of age of scion mother tree, different flushes of rootstock and insitu grafting on success and growth of softwood grafts of Alphonso mango”. Progressive Horticulture 21.1-2 (1989): 141-144.
  41. Anonymous. “Annual Report 1993-94”. CRS, Bapatla (1994).
  42. Saito T and Ito H. “Studies on growth and fruiting in tomato. Effect of early environmental conditions and cultural treatments on the morphological and physiological development of flower and flower drop. The effect of night temperature, light intensity and the fertility of the bedding soil”. Journal of Japan Society of Horticultural Science 36 (1967): 195-205.
  43. Sankar Reddy T 1983 Studies on flower production and fruit set in green gram (Vigna radiata var aureus) as influenced by soil moisture and shading. M.Sc., (Ag). Thesis submitted to APAU, Hyderabad.
  44. Sivudu BV., et al. “Effect of structural conditions on veneer grafting success and survival of mango grafts (mangifera indica cv.Banganpalli)”. Plant Archives 14.1 (2014): 71-75.
  45. Seshadri KV and Rao Rama Rao. “Effect of age of rootstock and pre-treating scion on the success of soft-wood grafting in cashew”. South Indian Horticulture 34.4 (1986): 255-257.
  46. Manga B., et al. “Studies on effect of propagation environment for softwood grafting in guava (psidium gujava L) cv Sardar”. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6.6 (2017): 2779-2783.
  47. Brian E Humphrey. Textbook: "The Bench Grafters Handbook: Principles and Practices". (2019): 637.
  48. Donadio LC., et al. “Dwarfing -canopy and rootstock cultivars for fruit trees”. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura Jaboticabal 41.3 (2018): 12. 
  49. Hollender CA., et al. “A brachytic dwarfism trait (dw) in peach trees is caused by a nonsense mutation within the gibberellic acid receptor PpeGID1c”. New Phytologist 210 (2016): 227-239.
×

Citation

Citation: Satya SS Narina., et al. “Potential Shade Structures to Improve Graft-Take and the Growth of Soft -Wood Grafts in Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.)". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 4.2 (2020): 01-18.



Member In




News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for March Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is February 29, 2020.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US