Acta Scientific Nutritional Health (ASNH)(ISSN: 2582-1423)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 2

The Use of Anthropometrics, BMI and Isotope Dilution Methods in Assessing the Double Burden of Malnutrition in Children (3-5 Years) in the Southern and Northern Regions of Botswana

Ramolefhe-Mutumwa Tshepiso Galase1*, Oatametse Boingotlo2, Motswagole Boitumelo Stokie1, Mulol Helen3 and Kwape Lemogang1

1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, National Food Technology Research Centre, Kanye, Botswana
2Department of Food Chemistry, National Food Technology Research Centre, Kanye, Botswana
3University of KwaZulu-Natal, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, Durban, South Africa

*Corresponding Author: Tshepiso Galase Ramolefhe-Mutumwa, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, National Food Technology Research Centre, Kanye, Botswana.

Received: January 17, 2020; Published: January 27, 2020

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Abstract

Objective: To assess the prevalence of under- and over- nutrition using three different assessment methods. 

Design: Descriptive cross sectional study

Setting: Malaria prone rural area in the northern (Shakawe) and non-malaria prone rural area in the southern (Moshupa) parts of Botswana.

Subjects: A convenience sample (n=197) of children aged three-five years and attending growth monitoring as a standard component of paediatric services. 

Outcome Measures: Double burden of malnutrition defined according to the three methods as follows: anthropometrics (weight for height z score -2SD vs. weight for height z score + 2SD), BMI calculated according to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention gender and age specific growth charts (<5th percentile vs. > 85th percentile) and deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution method calculating body fat mass percentage (< 13% fat mass percentage for boys and < 23% for girls (low fat mass) vs. > 20% fat mass percentage for boys and >30% for girls as under- and overnutrition respectively.

Results: Observations indicate that anthropometrics under-underestimated the prevalence of the double burden of malnutrition while BMI and D2O overestimated it. There was a significant difference on the assessment of under-nutrition using the three methods [H(2) =48.190, P<0.05]. Similarly on over-nutrition, there was a significant difference on the three methods in assessing over-nutrition [H(2) =77.434, P<0.05]. All three methods significantly reduced under - and/or over-nutrition at different magnitudes.

Conclusion: A gap still exists between the methods in assessing the double-burden of malnutrition. All three methods, anthropometry, BMI and D2O dilution method have significantly different effects towards the assessment of either under- and/or over-nutrition and thus it is recommended that a thorough decision be made prior to choosing which method to use based on the aim of the assessment. This study reflects the need to carefully select an appropriate method to use in assessing the burden of malnutrition. 

Keywords: Double Burden Malnutrition; Under-Fives; Isotope Dilution Method; Anthropometrics; BMI

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Citation

Citation: Ramolefhe-Mutumwa Tshepiso Galase., et al. “The Use of Anthropometrics, BMI and Isotope Dilution Methods in Assessing the Double Burden of Malnutrition in Children (3-5 Years) in the Southern and Northern Regions of Botswana". Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 4.2 (2020): 01-07.



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