Brij Nandan*, BC Sharma, Gurdev Chand, Kapliashiv Bazgalia, Rakesh Kumar and Monika Banotra
Pulses Research Sub Station, SKUAST- Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India
*Corresponding Author: Brij Nandan, Pulses Research Sub Station, SKUAST- Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Received: March 01, 2017; Published: March 21, 2018
Citation: Brij Nandan., et al. “Agronomic Fortification of ZN and Fe in Chickpea an Emerging Tool for Nutritional Security – A Global Perspective”. Acta Scientific Nutritional Health 2.4 (2018).
An investigation entitled “Influence of zinc and iron fortification on growth, yield and quality of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under rainfed subtropics of Jammu region” was undertaken at Pulse Research Sub Station, Samba of Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, during the rabi season of 2015-16.The soil of the experimental field was sandy loam in texture, near neutral in reaction, low in organic carbon, available nitrogen and available Zn but medium in available phosphorus and potassium with sufficient quantity of available iron and electrical conductivity in the safer range. The experiment comprised of two factors (2 chickpea varieties (GNG- 1581 and RSG-963) and 7 fortification treatments of Zinc and Iron viz., T1: Recommended dose of NPK (Control), T2: RDF + 0.5% Zn foliar spray, T3: RDF + 0.05% Fe foliar spray, T4: RDF + Zn (0.5%) and Fe (0.05%) foliar spray, T5: RDF + seed treatment 1g Zn/kg of seed, T6: RDF + soil application of ZnSo4 @ 25 kg/ha and T7: RDF + seed treatment + soil application of ZnSO4 @ 25 Kg/ha) with fourteen treatments combinations was laid out in a Factorial Randomized Block Design in four replications. The recommended dose of N, P2O5 and K2O was applied as basal through diammonium phosphate and muriate of potash at the time of sowing in lines below the seed. The foliar application of zinc and iron through zinc sulphate heptahydrate (ZnSO4.7H2O) and iron sulphate heptahydrate (FeSO4.7H2O) was given at pre flowering and pod formation stage of chickpea varieties. The crop was sown on 31st of October, 2015 in a crop geometry of 30 cm X 10 cm. The foliar application of Zn and iron was done at pre flowering and pod formation stage.
Significant changes were recorded in all the growth parameters of chickpea varieties at 90 days after sowing and at harvest. The variety GNG-1581 registered better performance over RSG-963 in recording significantly higher values of plant height, leaf area index and dry matter accumulation after 90 DAS and at harvest GNG-1581 variety also took less days to attain 50 per cent flowering and pod formation along with higher values of all the yield attributing characters with significant increase in number of pods/plant, pods/plant and 1000- seed weight as well as higher seed and stover yields as compared to RSG 963 variety of chickpea. Among the Zn and Fe fortification treatments, the treatment RDF followed by foliar application of Zn (0.5%) and Fe (0.05%) at pre flowing and pod formation stages was given to chickpea varieties recorded significantly higher values of plant height, leaf area index, dry matter accumulation at 90 DAS and at harvest. The same treatment recorded minimum days to attain 50% flowering and 50% pod formation along with significant higher number of pods/plant, number of seeds/pod, 1000-grain weight, seed yield, stover yield and Harvest Index over control treatment. There were non-significant differences with plants per square meter in all the treatment. The quality parameters i.e. protein content (%), proline content, chlorophyll content (SPAD value) and imbibition’s percentages significantly higher with the treatment where RDF followed by foliar application of Zn (0.5%) and Fe (0.05%) at pre flowing and pod formation stages in both the chickpea cultivars over all the other treatments in comparison. However, the lowest values of seed yield and stover yield, harvest index and all the quality parameters were recorded in control. The chickpea variety GNG-1581 showed superiority in regarding all the quality parameters over RSG-963.
Further, the results of the study indicated the soil parameters after harvest of crop showed non- significant variation with P, K, Zn and Fe expect for available N in soil after harvesting of crop which was significantly influenced by zinc and iron fortification treatments. However, the varieties showed significant positive variations with respect to available N, Zn and Fe and negative variation with available P and K content in the soil.
The economic analysis showed that between the two chickpea varieties, GNG-1581 gave maximum net returns of and B:C ratio over RSG-963 Amongst the zinc and iron fortification treatments, highest gross returns, net returns and B: C ratio were realized with treatment T4 (RDF + Zn (0.5%) and Fe (0.05%) through foliar application), which was followed by T7 i.e. RDF+ seed treatment + Soil application of Zn (T6 + Soil application of Zn) and T6 (RDF + soil application of ZnSO4 @ 25 kg/ha (recommended practice). However, lowest net returns were obtained in control treatment.
Henceforth, based on one year study, it is concluded that the treatment, the foliar application of Zn (0.5%) and Fe (0.05%) fortification treatment along with basal recommended dose of fertilizer showed significantly superior values of growth parameters, days to 50 percent flowering and pod formation and quality parameters like proline, protein, chlorophyll content and also helpful in fortification of the Zn and Fe content in seed and stover and gave more economic returns and higher B: C ratio of chickpea variety GNG1581. Therefore, it can be recommended that an application of recommended dose of fertilizer along with Zn (0.5%) and Fe (0.05%) through foliar application on chickpea variety GNG-1581 have been found an innovative agronomic intervention for zinc and iron fortification in chickpea under sub-tropical rainfed situations of Jammu region for providing an alternative measure for nutritional security to the poor and undernourished masses.
Keywords: Chickpea Varieties; Zn and Fe Fertilization; Net Returns; Gross Returns
Copyright: © 2018 Brij Nandan., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.