Acta Scientific Women's Health (ASWH)(ISSN: 2582-3205)

Review Article Volume 5 Issue 1

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Old Adult and Geriatric Women Population: Review

Alexis Hartman1, Lewis April1 and O Osman2*

1MS-3 Medical Students, Saint Louis University, USA
2Assistant Professor of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Saint Louis University, USA

*Corresponding Author: O Osman, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Saint Louis University, USA.

Received: November 11, 2022; Published: December 06, 2022


With the improvement of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) treatment with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART),patients living with HIV have an increased life expectancy, and now many of these patients live to see geriatric age. In 2019, the American population age 65+ was 54.1 million, of which 30 million were geriatric women (55.4%). Data for HIV patients show that ~ 50% of patients living with HIV are geriatric. Particularly amongst the female population, certain age-related issues, such as vulvovaginal atrophy and the associated disruption of the vaginal mucosa, put geriatric women at higher risk for HIV acquisition. Additionally, aging Geriatric Women are less likely to use barrier contraception methods, which may also increase their risk of acquiring HIV. This review illustrates facts and data about HIV in the geriatric population, with an emphasis on women of geriatric age.

Keywords: HIV; Aging; Frailty; Geriatric Patients


  1. Pathai S., et al. “Is HIV a model of accelerated or accentuated aging?” The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences 7 (2014): 833-842.
  2. HIV in the United States by Age (2022).
  3. Greene M., et al. “Management of human immunodeficiency virus infection in advanced age”. JAMA13 (2013): 1397-1405.
  4. Gomez CR., et al. “The aging innate immune system”. Current Opinion in Immunology 5 (2005): 457-462.
  7. World health statistics 2022: Monitoring Health for the sdgs, sustainable development goals. World Health Organization (2022).
  8. Colombo F., et al. “Pathway to UHC: three priorities for stronger, more resilient, more inclusive health systems”. 10 December 2021. A vision for primary health care in the 21st century: towards universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals. Geneva: World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF); (2018).
  9. Autenrieth CS., et al. “Global and regional trends of people living with HIV aged 50 and over: Estimates and projections for 2000-2020”. PLoS One11 (2018): e0207005.
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “HIV Surveillance Report” 33 (2020).
  15. Global excess death associated with COVID-19, January 2020 - December 2021. Geneva: World Health Organization (2022).
  16. DiNenno EA., et al. “HIV Testing Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic — United States, 2019-2020”. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 71 (2022): 820-824.
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Monitoring selected national HIV prevention and care objectives by using HIV surveillance data—United States and 6 dependent areas, 2020”. HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report3 (2022).
  19. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report 33 (2022).
  20. Levy JA., et al. “HIV/AIDS interventions for midlife and older adults: current status and challenges”. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 33 (2003): S59-67.
  21. Mack KA and Ory MG. “AIDS and older Americans at the end of the Twentieth Century”. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 33 (2003): S68-75.
  22. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report 33 (2020).
  23. HIV Infection Risk, Prevention, and Testing Behaviors Among Persons Who Inject Drugs: National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Injection Drug Use - 23 U.S. Cities, (2018).
  24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report 25 (2013).
  25. Centers for Disease Prevention and Control. HIV by Age: HIV Diagnoses.
  26. Dragovic B., et al. “Menopause care in women living with HIV in the UK - A Review”. Journal of Virus Eradication1 (2022): 100064.
  30. Branson BM., et al. “Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings”. MMWR Recommendations and Reports 55 (2006): 1.
  31. Stone VE., et al. “Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 29-2009. An 81-year-old man with weight loss, odynophagia, and failure to thrive”. The New England Journal of Medicine 361 (2009): 1189.
  32. Adekeye OA., et al. “The new invincibles: HIV screening among older adults in the U.S”. PLoS One 7 (2012): e43618.
  33. United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report 33 (2020).
  34. Syme ML, ., et al. “A Comparison of Actual and Perceived Sexual Risk Among Older Adults”. Journal of Sex Research 54 (2017): 149.
  35. Youssef E., et al. “Barriers and facilitators to HIV testing in people age 50 and above: a systematic review”. Clinical Medicine (Lond).6 (2017): 508-520.
  37. Qaseem A., et al. “Screening for HIV in health care settings: a guidance statement from the American College of Physicians and HIV Medicine Association”. Annals of Internal Medicine 150 (2009): 125.
  38. Pourcher V., et al. “Comorbidities in people living with HIV: An epidemiologic and economic analysis using a claims database in France”. PLoS One 1 (20202): e0243529.
  39. Roomaney RA., et al. “Aging with HIV: Increased Risk of HIV Comorbidities in Older Adults”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 4 (2022): 2359.
  41. Erlandson KM., et al. “Fall frequency and associated factors among men and women with or at risk for HIV infection”. HIV Medicine10 (2016): 740-748.
  42. Bravo P., et al. “Tough decisions faced by people living with HIV: a literature review of psychosocial problems”. AIDS Review2 (2010): 76-88.
  43. Valcour V., et al. “Higher frequency of dementia in older HIV-1 individuals: the Hawaii Aging with HIV-1 Cohort”. Neurology 63 (2004): 822.
  44. Coban H., et al. “Impact of aging on neurocognitive performance in previously antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals on their first suppressive regimen”. AIDS 31 (2017): 1565.
  45. Perissinotto CM., et al. “Loneliness in older persons: a predictor of functional decline and death”. Archives of Internal Medicine14 (2012): 1078-1083.
  46. Kaplan RC., et al. “Ten-year predicted coronary heart disease risk in HIV-infected men and women”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 8 (2007): 1074-1081.
  47. Crothers K., et al. “HIV infection and risk for incident pulmonary diseases in the combination antiretroviral therapy era”. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 3 (2011): 388-395.
  48. Jacobs JL., et al. “A cluster of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in adults without predisposing illnesses”. The New England Journal of Medicine 324 (1991): 246-250.
  49. Shiels MS., et al. “Age at cancer diagnosis among persons with AIDS in the United States”. Annals of Internal Medicine 7 (2010): 452-460.
  50. Davies DF and Shock NW. “Age changes in glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, and tubular excretory capacity in adult males”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 29 (1950): 496-504.
  51. Choi AI., et al. “Racial differences in end-stage renal disease rates in HIV infection versus diabetes”. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 18 (2007): 2968-2974.
  52. Wyatt CM., et al. “Acute renal failure in hospitalized patients with HIV: risk factors and impact on in-hospital mortality”. AIDS 20 (2006): 561-565.
  53. Erlandson KM., et al. “Fall frequency and associated factors among men and women with or at risk for HIV infection”. HIV Medicine10 (2016): 740-748.
  54. Evans SR., et al. “Peripheral neuropathy in HIV: prevalence and risk factors”. AIDS 7 (2011): 919-928.
  55. Brothers TD., et al. “Frailty in people aging with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection”. The Journal of Infectious Diseases8 (2014): 1170-1179.
  56. Goodpaster BH., et al. “The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study”. Journals of Gerontology: Series A 10 (2006): 1059-1064.
  57. Ali S and Garcia JM. “Sarcopenia, cachexia and aging: diagnosis, mechanisms and therapeutic options - a mini-review”. Gerontology 4 (2014): 294-305.
  58. Simpson DM and Bender AN. “Human immunodeficiency virus-associated myopathy: analysis of 11 patients”. Annals of Neurology1 (1988): 79-84.
  59. Arnsten JH., et al. “Decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk in aging men with or at risk for HIV infection”. AIDS5 (2007): 617-623.
  60. Brown TT and Qaqish RB. “Antiretroviral therapy and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis: a meta-analytic review”. AIDS 17 (2006): 2165-2174.
  61. Shafer RW and Vuitton DA. “Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1”. Biomed Pharmacotherapy2 (1999): 73-86.
  62. Kitahata MM., et al. “Physicians' experience with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as a factor in patients' survival”. The New England Journal of Medicine11 (1996): 701-706.
  63. Cunningham WE., et al. “The effect of hospital experience on mortality among patients hospitalized with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in California”. American Journal of Medicine2 (1999): 137-143.
  64. Rackal JM., et al. “Provider training and experience for people living with HIV/AIDS”. Cochrane Database System Review 6 (2011): CD003938.
  65. Günthard HF., et al. “Antiretroviral Drugs for Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection in Adults: 2016 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel”. JAMA 2 (2016): 191-210.
  66. INSIGHT START Study Group. Lundgren JD., et al. “Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection”. The New England Journal of Medicine9 (2015): 795-807.
  67. Sax PE., et al. “Abacavir-lamivudine versus tenofovir-emtricitabine for initial HIV-1 therapy”. The New England Journal of Medicine23 (2009): 2230-2240.
  68. Yamashita TE., et al. “Immunologic and virologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study”. AIDS 15 (2001): 735.
  69. Ghidei L., et al. “Aging, antiretrovirals, and adherence: a meta analysis of adherence among older HIV-infected individuals”. Drugs Aging 30 (2013): 809.
  70. Wellons MF., et al. “HIV infection: treatment outcomes in older and younger adults”. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 50 (2002): 603.
  71. Schoen JC., et al. “Clinical pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in older persons”. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology 9 (2013): 573.
  72. Hoffmann C., et al. “Higher rates of neuropsychiatric adverse events leading to dolutegravir discontinuation in women and older patients”. HIV Medicine 18 (2017): 56.
  73. Llibre JM., et al. “Discontinuation of dolutegravir, elvitegravir/cobicistat and raltegravir because of toxicity in a prospective cohort”. HIV Medicine 20 (2019): 237.
  74. Schoen JC., et al. “Clinical pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in older persons”. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology 9 (2013): 573.
  75. O’Mahony D., et al. “STOPP/START criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people: version 2”. Age Ageing 44 (2015): 213.
  76. Ryom L., et al. “Major revision version 11.0 of the European AIDS Clinical Society Guidelines 2021”. HIV Medicine 23 (2022): 849.


Citation: O Osman., et al. “Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Old Adult and Geriatric Women Population: Review". Acta Scientific Women's Health 5.1 (2023): 03-11.


Copyright: © 2022 O Osman., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US