Acta Scientific Women's Health (ASWH)(ISSN: 2582-3205)

Research Article Volume 4 Issue 5

Anaemia Mukt Bharat - A Desirable Goal or National Myth?

K Suresh*

Professor of Practice, School of Environment Sciences, Public Health, and Sanitation Management, Karnataka State Rural Development and Panchayat Raj University (KSRDPRU), GADAG, Karnataka, India

*Corresponding Author: K Suresh, Professor of Practice, School of Environment Sciences, Public Health, and Sanitation Management, Karnataka State Rural Development and Panchayat Raj University (KSRDPRU), GADAG, Karnataka, India.

Received: March 29, 2022; Published: April 29, 2022

Abstract

Anaemia is a condition with either the number of red blood cells or the concentration of haemoglobin within the blood cells less than normal. Anaemia is the cause of poor cognitive and motor development in children, low work capacity in adults resulting in lower productivity and poorer country’s economic development compared to its potential.

Global anaemia estimates in 2019 indicate a prevalence of anaemia in women 29.9% of women aged 15-49 years, 39.8% of children aged 6-59 months years. Out of a total of 633 thousand of anaemia burden worldwide, Southeast Asia contributes the most 37% followed by Africa (15%) Western Pacific (11.7%), Eastern Mediterranean (9%) and Europe and America (6% each) each of anaemic women and children.

Prevalence of Anaemia among pregnant women in India has been hovering around 68-70% and has come down by only 7% over period of 20 years between 1989-90 (NFHS2) and NFHS 5 (2019-21). The leading causes of anaemia in India are poverty, caste factors and poor sanitation. Frequent occurrences of malaria and worm infestations, a vegetarian diet is also implicated with iron-deficiency anaemia. National efforts since 1970 have yielded very little benefit, therefore it has launched an initiative called Anaemia Mukt Bharat in 2018. It aims reducing of anaemia prevalence among young children and women of the reproductive age group, though indicative of socio-economic inequality in anaemia among men in India. The Covid 19 Pandemic since early 2020 has disrupted, this initiative like many other national programs.

Most community research in India has shown that improving green leafy vegetables in daily diet, IFA supplementation, menstrual awareness and services and birth spacing are important in achieving Anaemia Mukt Bharat. The reality is most urban slum and rural population, worse the tribal people either have no access or poverty prevents to procure the most need green leafy vegetables and fruits to supplement and iron and other minerals and vitamins for haemoglobin synthesis. The need of the next decade is to encourage children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women and all reproductive age women and men in developing countries including India into the habit of eating more of green leafy vegetables and other Iron and vitamins rich foods. Better to go from doing nothing to doing something to ameliorate the challenge

Materials and Methods: This article analyses the burden of anaemia, trends of anaemia over last 20 years, challenges, national efforts so far, and road ahead. The data available in last 5 years from the global estimates, Global burden of diseases (2005-06 and 2015-16) national surveys like comprehensive national nutritional survey, national Family health surveys and local surveys, AMB-September 21-Scorecard and some published papers in the recent past have been used.

Keywords: Anaemia; Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA); Comprehensive National Nutritional Survey (CNNS); National Family Health Surveys (NFHS 1-5); Years Lived with Disabilities (YLDs) and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); Mod-day Meals (MDM)

References

  1. Anaemia in women and children, WHO Global Anaemia estimates (2021).
  2. Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization (2011).
  3. Saeid Safiri., et al. “Burden of anaemia and its underlying causes in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019”. Journal of Haematology and Oncology 14 (2021).
  4. National Family Health Survey, India. “Database that strengthen India's demographic and health policies and programmes”.
  5. National Family Health Survey-5, Press Information Bureau, Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 15 December (2021).
  6. NFHS-5 findings reveal increase in Anaemia prevalence in Children and Women across most states.
  7. Anaemia in women, children aggravated in 2019: NFHS-5, as 68.4% children and 66.4% women surveyed suffered from anaemia in 2019-21, Arup Jana.
  8. Anaemia Is the Biggest Cause of Disability in India, Worst In BRICS, Swagta Yadavar (2016).
  9. U Kapil., et al. “National Iron Plus Initiative: current Status and future strategy”. Indian Journal of Medical Research 3 (2019): 239-247.
  10. Weekly iron folic acid supplementation (WIFS) (2012).
  11. AMB Score Card, 2021-22 (up to September 2021), IFA Coverage (%) - Key Performance Indicators, HMIS (2021).
  12. “A fortified midday meal gets underway at Karnataka’s government schools”. 7 December (2016)
  13. “Karnataka: Rice fortification scheme in Koppal to tackle malnutrition and iron deficiency anaemia”. 2, October (2021).
  14. Archana Shukla. “Anaemia rising across all age-groups”.

Citation

Citation: K Suresh. “Anaemia Mukt Bharat - A Desirable Goal or National Myth?". Acta Scientific Women's Health 4.5 (2022): 70-80.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2022 K Suresh. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




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