Professor of Practice, School of Environment Sciences, Public Health, and Sanitation Management, Karnataka State Rural Development and Panchayat Raj University (KSRDPRU), GADAG, Karnataka, India
*Corresponding Author: K Suresh, Professor of Practice, School of Environment Sciences, Public Health, and Sanitation Management, Karnataka State Rural Development and Panchayat Raj University (KSRDPRU), GADAG, Karnataka, India.
Received: March 29, 2022; Published: April 29, 2022
Anaemia is a condition with either the number of red blood cells or the concentration of haemoglobin within the blood cells less than normal. Anaemia is the cause of poor cognitive and motor development in children, low work capacity in adults resulting in lower productivity and poorer country’s economic development compared to its potential.
Global anaemia estimates in 2019 indicate a prevalence of anaemia in women 29.9% of women aged 15-49 years, 39.8% of children aged 6-59 months years. Out of a total of 633 thousand of anaemia burden worldwide, Southeast Asia contributes the most 37% followed by Africa (15%) Western Pacific (11.7%), Eastern Mediterranean (9%) and Europe and America (6% each) each of anaemic women and children.
Prevalence of Anaemia among pregnant women in India has been hovering around 68-70% and has come down by only 7% over period of 20 years between 1989-90 (NFHS2) and NFHS 5 (2019-21). The leading causes of anaemia in India are poverty, caste factors and poor sanitation. Frequent occurrences of malaria and worm infestations, a vegetarian diet is also implicated with iron-deficiency anaemia. National efforts since 1970 have yielded very little benefit, therefore it has launched an initiative called Anaemia Mukt Bharat in 2018. It aims reducing of anaemia prevalence among young children and women of the reproductive age group, though indicative of socio-economic inequality in anaemia among men in India. The Covid 19 Pandemic since early 2020 has disrupted, this initiative like many other national programs.
Most community research in India has shown that improving green leafy vegetables in daily diet, IFA supplementation, menstrual awareness and services and birth spacing are important in achieving Anaemia Mukt Bharat. The reality is most urban slum and rural population, worse the tribal people either have no access or poverty prevents to procure the most need green leafy vegetables and fruits to supplement and iron and other minerals and vitamins for haemoglobin synthesis. The need of the next decade is to encourage children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women and all reproductive age women and men in developing countries including India into the habit of eating more of green leafy vegetables and other Iron and vitamins rich foods. Better to go from doing nothing to doing something to ameliorate the challenge
Materials and Methods: This article analyses the burden of anaemia, trends of anaemia over last 20 years, challenges, national efforts so far, and road ahead. The data available in last 5 years from the global estimates, Global burden of diseases (2005-06 and 2015-16) national surveys like comprehensive national nutritional survey, national Family health surveys and local surveys, AMB-September 21-Scorecard and some published papers in the recent past have been used.
Keywords: Anaemia; Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA); Comprehensive National Nutritional Survey (CNNS); National Family Health Surveys (NFHS 1-5); Years Lived with Disabilities (YLDs) and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); Mod-day Meals (MDM)
Citation: K Suresh. “Anaemia Mukt Bharat - A Desirable Goal or National Myth?". Acta Scientific Women's Health 4.5 (2022): 70-80.
Copyright: © 2022 K Suresh. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.