An Update on the Role of Bone Morphogenetic Protein and Growth Differentiation Factor on Follicular Generation in Human Menstrual Cycle with Clinical Impact on ART Success and PCOS Pathogenesis/Therapy-a Systematic Review
Kulvinder Kochar Kaur1*, Gautam Allahbadia2 and Mandeep Singh3
1Scientific Director, Dr Kulvinder Kaur Centre for Human Reproduction, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
2Scientific Director, Ex-Rotunda-A Centre for Human Reproduction, Mumbai, India
3Consultant Neurologist, Swami Satyanand Hospital, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
*Corresponding Author: Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Scientific Director, Dr Kulvinder Kaur Centre for Human Reproduction, Jalandhar, Punjab, India.
January 21, 2022; Published: January 31, 2022
Background: With the initiaI identification of capacity of generation of heterotopic bone Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) represent growth factors that possess numerous functions from the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) super family, With the utilization of cellular along with molecular genetic approaches, more recently studies have implied that that intraovarian BMP ‘s work as robust functional controllers of ovarian follicular function. The crosstalk that takes place in a `bidirectional manner of the oocytes besides the somatic cells surrounding them is a must for the normal follicular generation along with maturation of the oocytes. Thus we reviewed the existent information regarding the physiological part as well as the molecular determining factors of these ovarian controlling factors amongst the germline somatic -controlling loop.
Aim: The control of ovarian function has been ill characterized amongst humans, as whereas the elemental event of follicular generation along with maturation of the oocytes is akin in different species, with maximum knowledge in the context of control of ovarian follicular function gets derived via rodent studies. Hence the concentration was on studies where utilization of human biological materials done for getting insight in the context of human ovarian biology for the generation of strategies with the aim of avoidance, diagnosis therapy treatment, diagnosis besides treatment of these aberrations.
Methods and Results: The outcomes studies with utilization of human biological materials documented the expression of BMP ‘s or GDF’s in addition to their respective receptors along with their molecular signaling in the basic cells (oocytes, cumulus/granulosa cells (GCs) besides theca/stroma cells) of the ovarian follicles right through generation. On the existence of recombinant BMP ‘s/GDF’s along with generation the physiological functional part of human intraovarian BMP ‘s/GDF’s have been illustrated in each aspect of function of ovary ranging from i) follicle generation ii) steroidogenesis iicell-cell contact, iv) maturation of the oocytes v) ovulation and luteal function. Moreover, crosstalk amongst these ovarian controllers and endocrine signaling system. Impairment or natural mutations amongst the BMP system might result in numerous female reproductive diseases. With the generation of recombinant BMP, synthetic BMP inhibitors, gene therapy, tools meant for BMP ligand concealment, has seen to it that the BMP pathway has become a probable therapeutic target in some fertility pathological disorders. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are required. More recently GDF 8 has been demonstrated to be an intraovarian factor that might play an innovative part in control of ovarian functions in human ovary.
Keywords: Bone Morphogenetic; Follicular Generation; Ovulation; PCOS; Physiological; Endocrine
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