COVID19 Non-compliance; Maslow’s Theory of Needs and the Human Spirit: Are they Linked?
Manfred Mortell RN
Assistant Professor Nursing, Department of Nursing, University of the Bahamas, Nassau, Bahamas
*Corresponding Author: Manfred Mortell RN, Assistant Professor Nursing, Department of Nursing, University of the Bahamas, Nassau, Bahamas.
November 17, 2021; Published: January 27, 2022
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) began in Wuhan, China in 2019. The COVID-19 pandemic incarnates a significant worldwide health emergency, with international governments endorsing COVID-19 safeguard actions; which necessitated a noteworthy change in public behavior. However, non-compliance with safeguard processes, such as the “lockdown”, social and physical distancing, hand-hygiene conformity, and the use of personal protective equipment, such as facemasks were prevalent. Distinguishing and comprehension of the structure of human needs was crucial for the operational preparation and implementation of COVID-19 safety strategies. In order to increase community compliance with COVID-19 pandemic safeguards, reducing defiant behaviors, and protecting lives, Abraham Maslow’s theory of human needs could explain public non-compliance behavior. Maslow’s theory of human needs proposes a structure which illuminates why human beings are motivated, how they thrive, and why they may become non-compliant with COVID19 safety guidelines which are employed as safety measures.
Keywords:Behavior; COVID-19; Maslow’s Theory of Human Needs; Non-compliance
- Cohen J., et al. “Contributing factors to personal protective equipment shortages during the COVID-19 pandemic”. Preventive Medicine (2020).
- Donahue DA., et al. “The all needs approach to emergency response”. Homel Security Affair 1 (2012): 1-17.
- Maslow AH. “A theory of human motivation”. Psychology Review4 (1943): 370.
- Taormina RJ and Gao JH. “Maslow and the motivation hierarchy: measuring satisfaction of the needs”. American Journal of Psychology 2 (2013): 155-177.
- Rapoza K. “Will a 10-week lockdown lead to a great depression?” Forbes (2020).
- Chen N., et al. “Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study”. Lancet 395 (2020): 507-513.
- Chin J. “The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in China”. Chinese Journal of Epidemiology 41 (2020): 145-151.
- World Health Organization. “Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Situation report- 91” (2020b).
- World Health Organization. “Rolling updates on coronavirus disease (COVID-19)” (2020a).
- Scott S and Duncan CJ. “Biology of Plagues: Evidence from Historical Populations”. (Cambridge University Press (2001).
- Bollet, AJ. “Plagues and Poxes: the impact of human history on epidemic disease”. New York: Demos (2004).
- Hays, JN. “Epidemics and Pandemics: their impacts on human history”. Oxford: ABC-CLIO (2006).
- “People who need to take extra precautions” (2019a).
- Witte K and Allen M. “A meta-analysis of fear appeals: implications for effective public health campaigns”. Health Education Behavior 27 (2000): 591-615.
- “COVID-19: Protecting health-care workers”. The Lancet 395 (10228): 922.
- Clarke L. “Panic: myth or reality?” Contexts 1 (2002): 21-26.
- Mobbs D., et al. “The ecology of human fear: survival optimization and the nervous system”. Frontiers in Neuroscience 9 (2015): 55.
- Cole S., et al. “Affective signals of threat increase perceived proximity”. Psychology Science 24 (2013): 34-40.
- Drury J. “The role of social identity processes in mass emergency behaviour: an integrative review”. European Review of Social Psychology 29 (2018): 38-81.
- Stiff C. “The game theory of panic-buying - and how to reduce it”. The Conversation (2020).
- Dickie R., et al. “The effects of perceived social norms on hand washing behavior in students”. Psychology, Health and Medicine 23 (2018): 154-159.
- Cialdini RB., et al. “A focus theory of normative conduct: a theoretical refinement and reevaluation of the role of norms in human behavior”. in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 24 (1991): 201-234.
- Berkowitz AD. “An overview of the social norms approach. in Changing the Culture of College Drinking: A Socially Situated Health Communication Campaign”. (eds. Stewart, L. & Lederman, L. C.) 193-214 (Hampton Press, 2005).
- Abrams D., et al. “Knowing what to think by knowing who you are: self-categorization and the nature of norm formation, conformity and group polarization”. British Journal of Social Psychology 29 (1990): 97-119.
- Centola D. “An experimental study of homophily in the adoption of health behavior”. Science 334 (2011): 1269-1272.
- Christakis N A and Fowler J H. “Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior”. Statistics in Medicine 32 (2013): 556-577.
- Christakis N A and Fowler J H. “Social network sensors for early detection of contagious outbreaks”. PLoS One 5 (2010): e12948.