Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
K Siva Achanna and Jaydeep Nanda*
Mahsa University, Jalan SP2, Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding Author: Jaydeep Nanda, Mahsa University, Jalan SP2, Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia.
July 02, 2021; Published: July 31, 2021
the attention of the primary care doctor or the gynaecologist. Anovulation without any medical illness or pelvic pathology seems to be the common cause.
Bleeding due to a wide variation in pathology both inside and outside the reproductive tract can be termed as an anovulatory bleeding. Therefore, it is mandatory to elicit a focused menstrual history and appropriate evaluation followed by a pelvic examination. This includes a vaginal speculum examination, to differentiate anovulatory bleeding from other causes of bleeding. In contrast, Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is referred to as an ovulatory bleeding exceeding 8 days duration and is often caused by uterine fibroids or adenomyosis, a copper IUD or coagulation disorders. PALM-COEIN classification is a system designed by the Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d’ Obstetrique to define the precise underlying causes of AUB.
Etiology of AUB can be classified as following the Acronym “PALM-COEIN”: Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy and hyperplasia, Coagulopathy, Ovulatory dysfunction, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified.
AUB describes a range of symptoms, such as HMB, inter menstrual bleeding (IMB) and a combination of both heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding (MB). Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) and menorrhagia are now better described as AUB. Newborn girls sometimes spot for a few days after birth, due to placental estrogenic stimulation of the endometrium in utero.
Keywords: Abnormal Uterine Bleeding, Historical Views of Menstruation, Female Genital Tract Pathology, Bleeding Disorders (Thrombophilia), Pharmacological Treatment, Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures
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