Development and Validation of a Survey Instrument to Build Capacity for Examining Constraints to Sport Participation
Irmina Klicnik, Samah Mohammed* and Caroline Barakat
Faculty of Health Sciences, Ontario Tech University, Canada
*Corresponding Author: Samah Mohammed, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ontario Tech University, Canada.
April 15, 2021; Published: May 14, 2021
It is well documented that sport participation is relatively low among adolescent girls due to various constraints. Though much knowledge exists on these constraints, there is a need to examine if and whether constraints interact to influence sport participation. The purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument to facilitate the examination of interactions of constraints to sport participation among adolescent girls, and to verify the survey’s validity. Two theoretical frameworks were combined to guide the survey development. Newell’s model of constraints was used to categorize constraints, into environmental, individual and task constraints. The 40 Developmental Assets Profile was used to index the constraints into broader categories within each constraint type. In total, 51 constraints were sorted into the combined frameworks which developed an 81-question survey. An expert panel was consulted to review for construct and content validity. This study has contributed a new survey instrument to the literature on constraints to sport participation. When used in different locations globally, the survey has the potential to reveal the most salient constraints, as well as build capacity for research to better inform future interventions and promote further discussions regarding sport.
Keywords: Sport; Interactions; Survey Development; Newell’s Model; Girls
- Heritage Canada. “Sport participation 2010 research paper” (2013).
- Bélanger MCM Sabiston and T Barnett. "Number of years of participation in some, but not all, types of physical activity during adolescence predicts level of physical activity in adulthood: Results from a 13-year study”. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 12 (2015): 76.
- Howie E K., et al. “Organized Sport Trajectories from Childhood to Adolescence and Health Associations”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 48 (2016): 1331-1339.
- Eime R M., et al. “The relationship of sport participation to provision of sports facilities and socioeconomic status: A geographical analysis”. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 41 (2017): 248-255.
- Karjalainen A., et al. “Multi-dimensional interacting constraints on physical activity behaviours in the finish population”. Sports Medicine 46 (2016): 969-976.
- Kubayi N A. "Female Sport Participation In South African Rural Schools: Analysis Of Socio-Cultural Constraints”. European Review of Applied Sociology 8 (2015): 6-10.
- Deelen I., et al. “Do objective neighbourhood characteristics relate to residents’ preferences for certain sports locations? A cross-sectional study using a discrete choice modelling approach”. BMC Public Health 17 (2017): 943.
- Harrington DW., et al. “Parents’ perceived barriers to accessing sports and recreation facilities in Ontario, Canada: Exploring the relationships between income, neighbourhood deprivation, and community”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14 (2017): 1272.
- Tannehill D., et al. “What young people say about physical activity: the Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study”. Sport 4 (2015): 442-462.
- Yungblut H E., et al. “On physical activity during early adolescence”. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 11 (2012).
- Allender S., et al. “Understanding participation in sport and physical activity among children and adults: a review of qualitative studies”. Health Education Research 21 (2006): 826-835.
- Visek A J., et al. “The fun integration theory: toward sustaining children and adolescents sport participation”. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 12 (2015): 424-433.
- Amusa, L O., et al. “Perceived barriers to sport and recreation participation in Botswana”. African Journal for Physical Health Education 2 (2008): 115-129.
- Vasudevan V., et al. “Development of the barriers to physical activity questionnaire for people with mobility impairments”. Disability and Health Journal 8 (2015): 547-556.
- Alexandris K and B Carroll. "Demographic differences in the perception of constraints on recreational sport participation: Results from a study in Greece”. Leisure Studies 16 (1997): 107-125.
- Raymore L A., et al. “Self-esteem, gender, and socioeconomic status: Their relation to perceptions of constraint on leisure among adolescents”. Journal of Leisure Research 26 (1994): 99-118.
- Rodrigues I B., et al. “Development and validation of a new tool to measure the facilitators, barriers and preferences to exercise in people with osteoporosis”. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 18 (2017): 540.
- Siesmaa E J., et al. “Measuring children's self-reported sport participation, risk perception and injury history: Development and validation of a survey instrument”. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 14 (2011): 22-26.
- Charlton A., et al. “Barriers to participation: Analysis to inform the development of the 2010/11 Taking Part Survey”. London (2010).
- Crawford D W., et al. “A hierarchical model of leisure constraints”. Leisure Sciences 13 (1991): 309-320.
- Gyurcsik N C., et al. “An ecologically based examination of barriers to physical activity in students from grade seven through first-year university”. Journal of Adolescent Health 38 (2006): 704-711.
- Bronfenbrenner U. "Toward an experimental ecology of human development”. American Psychologist 32 (1977): 513.
- Alexandris K., et al. “Perceived constraints on recreational sport participation: Investigating their relationship with intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation”. Journal of Leisure Research 34 (2002): 233-252.
- McArthur D., et al. “Factors influencing adherence to regular exercise in middle-aged women: a qualitative study to inform clinical practice”. BMC Women's Health 14 (2014): 49.
- Newell K M. Constraints on the development of coordination. “Motor development in children: Aspects of coordination and control”. (1986): 341-360.
- Scales P C. "Reducing risks and building developmental assets: Essential actions for promoting adolescent health”. Journal of School Health 69 (1999): 113-119.
- Lerner RM., et al. “Exemplifying the Integrations of the Relational Developmental System: Synthesizing Theory, Research, and Application to Promote Positive Development and Social Justice”. Journal of Adolescent Research3 (2008): 245-255.
- Zamanzadeh V., et al. “Design and implementation content validity study: development of an instrument for measuring patient-centered communication”. Journal of Caring Sciences 4 (2015): 165.
- Moher D., et al. “Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement”. PLoS Medicine 6 (2009): e1000097.
- Chyung S Y., et al. “Evidence‐based survey design: The use of a midpoint on the Likert scale”. Performance Improvement 56 (2017): 15-23.
- Kulas J T., et al. “Middle response functioning in Likert-responses to personality items”. Journal of Business and Psychology 22 (2008): 251-259.
- Statistics Canada. “Visible minority of person” (2015).
- Sharratt M T and W E Hearst. "Canada’s physical activity guides: background, process, and development”. (2007).
- Clark W. “Kids’ sports”. Canadian Social Trends 85 (2008): 54-61.
- Presser S., et al. “Methods for testing and evaluating survey questions”. Public Opinion Quarterly 68 (2004): 109-130.
- Jacquez F., et al. “Youth as partners, participants or passive recipients: A review of children and adolescents in community-based participatory research (CBPR)”. American Journal of Community Psychology 51 (2013): 176-189.
- Fuller D., et al. “School sports opportunities influence physical activity in secondary school and beyond”. Journal of School Health 81 (2011): 449-454.
- Loptson K., et al. “Walkable for whom? Examining the role of the built environment on the neighbourhood-based physical activity of children”. Canadian Journal of Public Health 103 (2012): S29-S34.
- Robbins L B., et al. “Physical activity self-definition among adolescents”. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice 18 (2004): 317-330.
- Faulkner G., et al. “Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: Exploring the perceptions of stakeholders regarding their acceptability, barriers to uptake, and dissemination”. Applied Physiology 6 (2016): S303-S310.
- Revilla M and C Ochoa. "Ideal and maximum length for a web survey”. International Journal of Market Research 59 (2017): 557-565.
- Allison R., et al. “Is team sport the key to getting everybody active, every day? A systematic review of physical activity interventions aimed at increasing girls' participation in team sport”. AIMS Public Health 4 (2017): 202.
- Bedell G., et al. “Community participation, supports, and barriers of school-age children with and without disabilities”. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 94 (2013): 315-323.
- Downward P and S Rasciute. "Exploring the covariates of sport participation for health: an analysis of males and females in England”. Journal of Sports Sciences 33 (2015): 67-76.
- Eime R M., et al. “Socioecological factors potentially associated with participation in physical activity and sport: A longitudinal study of adolescent girls”. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 18 (2015): 684-690.
- Muhajarine N., et al. “Longitudinal active living research to address physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour in children in transition from preadolescence to adolescence”. BMC Public Health 15 (2015): 495.
- Nichol M E., et al. “Associations between school recreational environments and physical activity”. Journal of School Health 79 (2009): 247-254.
- Sukys S., et al. “Do Parents’ Exercise Habits Predict 13-18-Year-Old Adolescents’ Involvement in Sport?”. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 13 (2014): 522.