Acta Scientific Women's Health (ASWH)(ISSN: 2582-3205)

Research Article Volume 2 Issue 8

Feto-Maternal Outcome of HIV Positive Pregnant Women on HAART at the Gambia - Case - Control Study

Matthew Anyanwu1,2*, Samuel Anya2, Richard Offiong3 and Bissallah Ekele3

1Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Banjul, The Gambia
2School of Medical and Allied Health Sciences, University of The Gambia, The Gambia
3University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH) FCT, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author: Anyanwu Matthew, Senior Lecturer, University of the Gambia School of Medicine and Allied Sciences department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Gambia.

Received: July 02, 2020; Published: July 30, 2020

×

Abstract

 Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in pregnant women remains a huge public health concern globally. There were conflicting reports regarding pregnancy outcome among HIV positive mothers. The aim was to compare pregnancy outcome among HIV-infected and uninfected women at Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Banjul the Gambia. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the hospital were prospectively recruited and followed up. HIV positive and negative mothers were matched for age and parity. Recruitment occurred irrespective of gestation age. At the time of delivery, obstetric and neonatal characteristics were entered into computer database. Mothers and their children were followed until 6 weeks postpartum. The data was analyzed with Epi-info version 7.1.5. Chi square at significant level of 0.05 and confidence level of 95% was used to determine significance. A total of 166 mothers, 55 HIV positive and 111 HIV negative controls were in the study. The age range was between 18 to 45 years and parity was 0 to 8. The measured adverse outcome includes; Low Birth Weight; 20% Vs 5.2% odds ratio (OR) 4.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46-14.2; P- 0.01220 and maternal anaemia (40% Vs 11% OR 5.4 95% CI 2.3 - 12.6; P-0.0001). Both showed statistical significant difference. Preterm delivery; 29.2% and 26.6%; OR 1.14; 95% CI 0.52 - 2.46; P-0.9 and stillbirth, low Apgar score at 5 minutes and NICU admission of 5.45%vs 0-0.9% showed no statistical difference; (OR = 6.3; CI; 0.6 - 6.25; P -0.21). HIV infection was associated with low birth weight and maternal anaemia.

Keywords: HIV; HAART; Pregnancy

×

References

  1. Lindgren S., et al. “Pattern of HIV viraemia and CD4 levels in relation to pregnancy in HIV-1 infected women”. Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 28 (1996): 425-433.
  2. Rich KC., et al. “CD4+ lymphocytes in perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: evidence for pregnancy-induced immune depression in uninfected and HIV-infected women”. Journal of Infectious Diseases 172 (1995): 1221-1227.
  3. French R and Brocklehurst P. “The effect of pregnancy on survival in women infected with HIV a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis”. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 105 (1998): 827-835.
  4. Temmerman M., et al. “Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Kenya”. Obstetrics and Gynecology 4 (1994): 495-501.
  5. Leroy V., et al. “Effect of HIV-1 infection on pregnancy outcome in women in Kigali, Rwanda, 1992-1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group”. AIDS 12 (1998): 643-650.
  6. Lorenzi P. “Antiretroviral therapies in pregnancy: maternal, foetal and neonatal effects. Swiss HIV Cohort Study, the Swiss Collaborative and Pregnancy Study, and the Swiss Neonatal HIV Study”. AIDS 12 (1998): 241-247.
  7. Ezechi OC., et al. “Pregnancy, Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes in HIV Positive Nigerian Women”. African Journal of Reproductive Health 3 (2013): 160-168.
  8. Ahmadu BU., et al. “Birth weight outcome of babies whose mothers are infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and on antiretroviral therapy at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Nigeria”. Greener Journal of Medical Sciences2 (2013): 053-056.
  9. Adesina O., et al. “Risk of anaemia in HIV positive pregnant women in Ibadan, south west Nigeria”. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences1 (2011): 67-73.
  10. Anyanwu M., et al. “HIV infection: The course and outcome of pregnancy in The Gambia between 2005 and 2011 - a descriptive cross sectional survey”. UNAIDS The Gambia (2013).
  11. Dupont WD and Plummer WD. "Power and Sample Size Calculations: A Review and Computer Program". Controlled Clinical Trials 11 (1990): 116-128.
  12. Interim WHO clinical staging of HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS case definitions for surveillance African region (2005).
  13. Olagbuji BN., et al. “Obstetric and perinatal outcome in HIV positive women receiving HAART in urban Nigeria”. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics (2009): 281.
  14. Onah HE., et al. “Pregnancy outcome in HIV-positive women in Enugu, Nigeria”. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 27 (2007): 271-274.
  15. French R and Brocklehurst P. “The effect of pregnancy on survival in women infected with HIV a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis”. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 105 (1998): 827-835.
  16. Fawole AO., et al. “HIV in pregnancy: Experience at Abeokuta Nigeria”. Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 1 (2002): 7-10.
  17. Cotter AM., et al. “Is antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight, or stillbirth”. Journal of Infection Disease9 (2006): 1195-1201.
  18. Townsend CL., et al. “Antiretroviral therapy and premature delivery in diagnosed HIV-infected women in the United Kingdom and Ireland”. AIDS 21 (2007): 1019-1026.
  19. Tuomala R., et al. “Antiretroviral Therapy during Pregnancy and the Risk of an Adverse Outcome”. The New England Journal of Medicine 346 (2002): 1863-1870.
×

Citation

Citation: Matthew Anyanwu., et al. “Feto-Maternal Outcome of HIV Positive Pregnant Women on HAART at the Gambia - Case - Control Study". Acta Scientific Women's Health 2.8 (2020): 02-07.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
Impact Factor0.539

Indexed In





News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 20, 2021.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of “Best Article of the Issue”.
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.
  • Contact US