Acta Scientific Women's Health (ASWH)(ISSN: 2582-3205)

Research Article Volume 2 Issue 4

Clinical Significance of Hepatitis B Virus-Genotypes and Correlation of HBV-DNA Viral Load with the Liver Enzyme in Pregnant Female

Khan Salman1*, Singh Priti2, Rashmi3, Zefenkey Zean4, Abdul Azeez Ibrahim4 and Salieva Rana5

1Assistant Professor, Department of Pathological Analysis, Knowledge University, Erbil, Iraq
2International Medical Faculty, Osh State University, Osh, Kyrgyzstan
3Delhi Paramedical and Management Institute, New Delhi, India
4Department Pathological Analysis, Knowledge University, Erbil, Iraq
5Department of Pulmonary, Osh state university, Osh, Kyrgyzstan

*Corresponding Author: Khan Salman, Assistant Professor of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Knowledge University, Erbil, Iraq.

Received: March 25, 2020; Published: April 01, 2020



Objective:  Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection during prenatal period presents with unique management issues for both the mother and fetus. These include the effects of HBV on maternal and fetal health, the effects of pregnancy on the course of HBV infection, treatment of HBV during pregnancy, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission.

Methods: Study conducted on 770 in clinically suspected pregnant female patients and performed in central research station laboratory of Microbiology at Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Subharti Medical College in Meerut, India between November 2017 and February 2020. Serum samples were tested for HBsAg, HBeAg using ELISA.DNA was isolated and Amplified by RT-PCR by using pre-S gene and correlation with ALT, AST. Amplified DNA was Sequenced and genotyped by sequencer and analysed it on NCBI.

Results: 68 were positive for HBsAg in Pregnant female. 47 were HBeAg positive. 13 sample were positive for PCR. ALT was significant (P < 0.004) when correlate with DNA viral load. Genotype-B and genotype-A were 61.5% (n = 8), and 38.5% (n = 5) respectively.


Conclusion  Genotype B was more prevalent in pregnancy. This study will improving current knowledge of genotype of hepatitis B in this region and will help clinicians to provide better therapy to the pregnant. For the differentiation of HBV infection level in diagnosis, HBsAg, HBeAg and ALT will be adequate in low income developing countries. Implementation of HBV-vaccine for both pre-exposure and post-exposure has been suggested to control HBV in Pregnant and new born baby. General population should get Vaccination from government hospitals to avoid this health problem.

Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus; Pregnancy; Genotypes; ALT; AST; RT-PCR



  1. “Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus”. Division of Health and Development, WHO (2013).
  2. Khan Salman Rashmi., et al. “Hepatitis B virus infection in pregnant women and transmission to newborns”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease6 (2015): 421-429.
  3. Batham A., et al. “Systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of hepatitis B in India”. Indian Pediatrics 44 (2007): 663-674.
  4. Stevens Ce., et al. “Vertical transmission of hepatitis B antigen in Taiwan”. The New England Journal of Medicine 292 (1975): 771-774.
  5. Teo e-K and Lok AS. “Epidemiology, transmission and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection”. In: Rose Bd, editor (2010).
  6. Pavel A., et al. “Detrimental effects of hepatitis B virus infection on development of the product of conception”. Virologie 34 (1983): 35-40.
  7. Chatterjee S., et al. “Hepatitis B Prevalence during pregnancy”. Indian Pediatrics 46 (2009): 1005-1008.
  8. Alter MJ. “Epidemiology of hepatitis B in Europe and worldwide”. Journal of Hepatology 39 (2003): 64-69.
  9. QIAamp® DNA isolation Mini kit (2016).
  10. artus® HBV RG PCR Kit (2014).
  11. AST and ALT by Kinetic UV method based on IFCC recommendations (1985).
  12. Trugene Hbv Genotyping Assay, Identify Viral Genotype and Interrogate Hepatitis B Viral Mutations, siemens AG Healthcare Sector Henkestrasse, Erlangen Germany.
  14. World Health Organization. “Emergencies preparedness, response: hepatitis: frequently asked questions” (2016).
  15. Gasim GI., et al. “Regional Review of Hepatitis B and C virus infections among pregnant women in Arab and African countries”. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 8 (2013): 566-578.
  16. Salman K. “Detection of hepatitis B virus in clinically suspected infectious hepatitis pregnant and non-pregnant women”. Bali Medical Journal3 (2017): S105-S108.
  17. Salman Khan. “Magnitude of hepatitis B infection in pregnant women and in clinically suspected infectious hepatitis at a tertiary care hospital in Ghaziabad”. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease1 (2017): 14-17.
  18. Baye G., et al. “Sero-prevalence of HBV and HCV Infections Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care Clinic at Dessie Referral Hospital, Ethiopia”. Advances in Life Sciences and Health2 (2014): 109-120.
  19. Khan S., et al. “Seroprevalence of hepatitis-B virus in mid and far western region in Nepal”. Indonesian Journal of Biomedical Sciences2 (2012): 47-50.
  20. Salman Khan Madan M., et al. “Prevalence of hepatitis B Virus in clinically suspected infectious hepatitis in Meerut, India”. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science2 (2019): 329-333.
  21. Molla S., et al. “Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti HCV antibody and its associated risk factors among pregnant women attending maternity ward of Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study”. Virology Journal 12 (2015): 204.
  22. Yohanes T., et al. “Seroprevalence and Predictors of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Routine Antenatal Care in Arba Minch Hospital, South Ethiopia”. Hepatitis Research and Treatment (2016): 9290163.
  23. Zenebe Z., et al. “Sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia”. BMC Infectious Diseases 14 (2014): 118.
  24. Kfutwah AK., et al. “A low proportion of HBeAg among HBsAg-positive pregnant women with known HIV status could suggest low perinatal transmission of HBV in Cameroon”. Virology Journal 9 (2012): 62.
  25. Ott JJ., et al. “The risk of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission: hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) prevalence estimates for all world regions”. BMC Infectious Diseases 12 (2012): 131.
  26. Chattopadhyay S., et al. “Hepatitis B virus genotypes in chronic liver disease patients from New Delhi, India”. World Journal of Gastroenterology 41 (2006): 6702-6706.
  27. Salman Khan Madan M., et al. “Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus, Genotypes, and Mutants in HBsAg-Positive Patients in Meerut, India”. Iranian Biomedical Journal5 (2019): 354-361.
  28. Salman Khan Madan M., et al. “Detection of Hepatitis B Genotypes in HBsAg and HBeAg Carriers”. Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research5 (2018): 20-30.
  29. Vivekanandan P., et al. “Distribution of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes in Blood Donors and Chronically Infected Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India”. Clinical Infectious Diseases 38 (2004): e81-e86.
  30. Swati S., et al. “Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes and Serotypes in Western India: Lack of Clinical Significance”. Journal of Medical Virology 69 (2003): 324-330.
  31. Rahman MA., et al. “Prevalence of genotypes and subtypes of hepatitis B viruses in Bangladeshi population”. Springer Plus 5 (2016): 278.
  32. H Leblebicioglu., et al. “Acute hepatitis B virus infection in Turkey: epidemiology and genotype distribution”. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 10 (2004): 6.
  33. Souleymane Brah., et al. “Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus from chronically-infected patients in Niamey, Niger”. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 45 (2016): 18-23.
  34. Tatematsu K., et al. “A genetic variant of hepatitis B virus divergent from known human and ape genotypes isolated from a Japanese patient and provisionally assigned to new genotype J”. Journal of Virology 83 (2009): 10538-10547.
  35. Matsuura K., et al. “Distribution of hepatitis B virus genotypes among patients with chronic infection in Japan shifting toward an increase of genotype A”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 47 (2009): 1476-83.
  36. Thakur V., et al. “Profile, spectrum and significance of HBV genotypes in chronic liver disease patients in the Indian subcontinent”. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 17 (2002): 165-170.
  37. Kao JH., et al. “Genotypes and clinical phenotypes of hepatitis B virus in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection”. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 4 (2002): 1207-1209.
  38. Sharma S., et al. “Clinical Significance of Genotypes and Precore/Basal Core Promoter Mutations in HBV Related Chronic Liver Disease Patients in North India”. Digestive Diseases and Sciences (2009).
  39. Khan S and Madan M. “The clinical importance of hepatitis B virus genotypes”. Bali Medical Journal3 (2015): 119-131.
  40. Khan Salman and Madan Molly. “Co-relation of alt and ast levels with hepatitis B virus DNA viral load”. International Journal of Medical and Biomedical Studies5 (2018) 51-57.


Citation: Khan Salman., et al. “Clinical Significance of Hepatitis B Virus-Genotypes and Correlation of HBV-DNA Viral Load with the Liver Enzyme in Pregnant Female”. Acta Scientific Women's Health 2.4 (2020): 21-26.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US