Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Nursing, Christian College of Nursing, Neyyoor, The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai, India
*Corresponding Author: Rajitha SR, Assistant Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Nursing, Christian College of Nursing, Neyyoor, The Tamilnadu Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai, India.
Received: January 02, 2020; Published: February 10, 2020
PCOS is a serious genetic, metabolic, hormone and reproductive condition that commonly affects women and girls. It is an important cause of female infertility and a precursor for other critical conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type - 2 diabetes and endometrial cancer. It has both reproductive and metabolic effects. However, PCOS is likely under diagnosed in most of the adolescent girls. It affects 5-10% of all women of child-bearing age. Teenagers can experience the full range of PCOS symptoms seen in more mature women, including irregular or completely absent periods. No single cause has been identified; however, evidence suggests a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. It is very difficult to diagnose PCOS during the first 2 years following menarche because normal pubertal changes can mimic symptoms of PCOS. These symptoms are anovulatory menstrual cycles, transient multi-follicular ovarian morphology, increased androgen effects and relative insulin resistance. Common clinical features of PCOS include irregular or heavy or no menstrual periods, excess facial and body hair, acne, pain in the pelvis, difficulty to get pregnant and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin. Diagnosis of PCOS is based on any two of the following three findings. They are no ovulation, high androgen levels and ovarian cysts. Cysts may be distinguishable by ultrasonography. PCOS treatment may involve lifestyle modifications such as weight reduction and regular exercise. Birth control pills help to improve the regularity of menstrual periods, excess hair growth and acne. Metformin and anti-androgens may also help. Other typical acne treatments and hair removal techniques may be used for the treatment of PCOS. Weight loss, clomiphene or metformin also helps to improve fertility. The month of September is considered as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) awareness month around the world. It helps to initiate a conversation about this under diagnosed medical condition. Women who have PCOS are at high risk for several serious complications, some of them can be life threatening complications. Early diagnosis and treatment helps to reduce the risk for many of the complications.
Keywords: Hyperinsulinemia; Hirsutism; Anovulation; Electrocautery; Hyperandrogenemia
Citation: Rajitha SR. “Mini Review on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)”. Acta Scientific Women's Health 2.3 (2020): 01-04.
Copyright: © 2020 Rajitha SR. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.