Acta Scientific Ophthalmology (ISSN: 2582-3191)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 11

Global Myopia: Theories Behind this Epidemic and how to Prevent Progression in Children

Satya M N K Maripi and Konala Sunaina Reddy

Palacky Medical University, Czech Republic

*Corresponding Author: Konala Sunaina Reddy, Palacky Medical University, Czech Republic.

Received: October 20, 2023; Published: November 20, 2023

Abstract

Aim: Myopia, also known as near or short sightedness, is a common refractive defect that generally develops in childhood. This is mainly owing to an elongated eye on axial length, with focusing power of the cornea and/or lens being a less common cause. This leads to the focus of light in front of, instead of, directly on the retina. Uncorrected refractive error is the most common cause for visual impairment and is responsible for the 2nd most common cause of blindness worldwide. Holden., et al. predicted the rise of prevalence in myopia to nearly 50% of the global population by the year 2050 and that a higher proportion of this group would develop moderate to severe myopia. The current alarming trends validate these predictions and has spurred a surge in studies to understand the underlying causes. The process of myopia is still unclear, however there are several hypotheses that describe the development of myopia. There is a varying degree of responsibility that may be attributed to both genetic and environmental variables. There are a variety of treatment options available to treat and manage this condition, but it is apparent that understanding the mechanisms involved in delaying myopia onset and decreasing its advancement will be the key to lowering the rapid growth in global prevalence.

Methods: In this systematic review Medline OVID and Medline Embase are the two databases that were used to search for appropriate material for critical evaluation. The appropriateness of each article and reference was manually assessed before selecting them. Therefore, the important concepts to construct my thesis reflect the global prevalence of myopia, the aetiologias and prevention methods especially in children. The articles must be centered around these concepts and are identified and selected if these search terms were included in the title and abstract.

Results/Discussion: The analysis determines that there are many variables contributing to the myopia epidemic. Theories that have proposed in relation to myopia development has only recently been hypothesized, with no strong conclusions being derived in human trials. However, it is understood that increased near work and reduced day light do allow myopia progression.

Conclusions: The objective of this research is to evaluate the evidence on various therapies and strategies in order to help family doctors deliver the best recommendations to patients and their families. This myopic rise is not only significant enough to warrant investigation, but the frequency of high-grade myopia is linked to a variety of debilitating illnesses.

Keywords: Myopia; Global; Blindness; Pediatrics; Child; Epidemiology

References

  1. Pan Chen-Wei., et al. “Worldwide Prevalence and Risk Factors for Myopia”. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics: The Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)1 (2012): 3-16.
  2. Baldwin William R. “The Relationship between Axial Length of the Eye and Certain Other Anthropometric Measurements of Myopes”. Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry9 (1964): 513-522.
  3. Flitcroft Daniel Ian., et al. “IMI - Defining and Classifying Myopia: A Proposed Set of Standards for Clinical and Epidemiologic Studies”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science3 (2019): M20-M30.
  4. Gwiazda Jane., et al. “Baseline Refractive and Ocular Component Measures of Children Enrolled in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET)”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science2 (2002): 314-321.
  5. Willis J R. “The Prevalence of Myopic Choroidal Neovascularization in the United States: Analysis of the IRIS ( R) Data Registry and NHANES”. Ophthalmology8 (2016): 1771-1782.
  6. Kwok M K M. “An Update on the Interventions and Strategies in Preventing Myopia Progression”. Hong Kong Practitioner 35 (2013): 91-96.
  7. Vera-Diaz FA. “Myopia”. Encyclopedia of the Eye (2010): 98-105.
  8. WHO, WHO. “Vision Impairment and Blindness”. World Health Organization, (2015).
  9. Holden Brien A., et al. “Global Prevalence of Myopia and High Myopia and Temporal Trends from 2000 through 2050”. Ophthalmology5 (2016): 1036-1042.
  10. Lin LLK., et al. “Prevalence of Myopia in Taiwanese Schoolchildren: 1983 to 2000”. Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore1 (2004): 27-33.
  11. Vitale Susan., et al. “Increased Prevalence of Myopia in the United States between 1971-1972 and 1999-2004”. Archives of Ophthalmology12 (2009): 1632-1639.
  12. Naidoo Kovin S., et al. “Potential Lost Productivity Resulting from the Global Burden of Myopia: Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Modeling”. Ophthalmology3 (2019): 338-346.
  13. Fricke T R., et al. “Global Cost of Correcting Vision Impairment from Uncorrected Refractive Error”. Bulletin of the World Health Organization10 (2012): 728-738.
  14. Foo Li Lian., et al. “Cost of Myopia Correction: A Systematic Review”. Frontiers in Medicine 8 (2021): 718724.
  15. Dias Lynette Leslie Hyman., et al. “Evaluating the Self-Esteem of Myopic Children over a Three-Year Period: The COMET Experience”. Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry4 (2005): 338-347.
  16. Dias Lynette., et al. “The Relationship between Self-Esteem of Myopic Children and Ocular and Demographic Characteristics”. Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry11 (2002): 688-696.
  17. Fledelius H C. “Ophthalmic Changes from Age of 10 to 18 Years. A Longitudinal Study of Sequels to Low Birth Weight. IV. Ultrasound Oculometry of Vitreous and Axial Length”. Acta Ophthalmologica3 (1982): 403-411.
  18. Balacco-Gabrieli C. “The Etiopathogenesis of Degenerative Myopia”. Annals of Ophthalmology4 (1983): 312-314.
  19. GROSSNIKLAUS HANS E and W. RICHARD GREEN. “Pathologic Findings in Pathologic Myopia”. Retina2 (1992): 127-133.
  20. Mutti D O., et al. “Axial Growth and Changes in Lenticular and Corneal Power during Emmetropization in Infants”. Journal of AAPOS2 (2006): 188-189.
  21. Edwards M H. “The Development of Myopia in Hong Kong Children between the Ages of 7 and 12 Years: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study”. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics: The Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)4 (1999): 286-294.
  22. Jones Lisa A., et al. “Comparison of Ocular Component Growth Curves among Refractive Error Groups in Children”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science7 (2005): 2317-2327.
  23. Mantyjarvi M. “Changes of Refraction in Schoolchildren”. Archives of Ophthalmology 103 (1985): 790-792.
  24. Vanathi M., et al. “Case Series of 12 Children with Progressive Axial Myopia Following Unilateral Cataract Extraction”. Journal of AAPOS4 (2002): 228-232.
  25. Kettesy A. “The Stabilisation of the Refraction and Its Role in the Formation of Ametropia”. The British Journal of Ophthalmology1 (1949): 39-47.
  26. Ding Xiaohu., et al. “The Guangzhou Twin Eye Study: 2019 Update”. Twin Research and Human Genetics: The Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies6 (2019): 492-498.
  27. Dirani Mohamed., et al. “Heritability of Refractive Error and Ocular Biometrics: The Genes in Myopia (GEM) Twin Study”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science11 (2006): 4756-4761.
  28. Guo Xiangming., et al. “Nonsyndromic High Myopia in a Chinese Family Mapped to MYP1: Linkage Confirmation and Phenotypic Characterization”. Archives of Ophthalmology11 (2010): 1473-1479.
  29. Nürnberg Gudrun., et al. “Refinement of the MYP3 Locus on Human Chromosome 12 in a German Family with Mendelian Autosomal Dominant High-Grade Myopia by SNP Array Mapping”. International Journal of Molecular Medicine4 (2008): 429-438.
  30. Zhang Q., et al. “A new locus for autosomal dominant high myopia maps to 4q22-q27 between D4S1578 and D4S1612”. Molecular Vision 11 (2005): 554-60.
  31. Gwiazda Jane., et al. “Factors Associated with High Myopia after 7 Years of Follow-up in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET) Cohort”. Ophthalmic Epidemiology4 (2007): 230-237.
  32. Kurtz Daniel., et al. “Role of Parental Myopia in the Progression of Myopia and Its Interaction with Treatment in COMET Children”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science2 (2007): 562-570.
  33. Li Shi-Ming., et al. “Annual Incidences and Progressions of Myopia and High Myopia in Chinese Schoolchildren Based on a 5-Year Cohort Study”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science1 (2022): 8.
  34. Saw Seang-Mei., et al. “IQ and the Association with Myopia in Children”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science9 (2004): 2943-2948.
  35. Sorsby A and F A Young. “Transmission of Refractive Errors within Eskimo Families”. American Journal of Optometry and Archives of American Academy of Optometry3 ( 1970): 244-249.
  36. Flitcroft DI. “A model of the contribution of oculomotor and optical factors to emmetropization and myopia”. Vision Research19 (1998): 2869-2879.
  37. Stuart A Hodson GK. “The Heritability of High Myopia: A Reanalysis of Goldschmidt’s Data”. Journal of Medical Genetics3 (2000).
  38. Jones Lisa A., et al. “Parental History of Myopia, Sports and Outdoor Activities, and Future Myopia”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science8 (2007): 3524-3532.
  39. Rose Kathryn A., et al. “Outdoor Activity Reduces the Prevalence of Myopia in Children”. Ophthalmology8 (2008): 1279-1285.
  40. Fujiwara Miyuki., et al. “Seasonal Variation in Myopia Progression and Axial Elongation: An Evaluation of Japanese Children Participating in a Myopia Control Trial”. Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology4 (2012): 401-406.
  41. Gwiazda Jane., et al. “Seasonal Variations in the Progression of Myopia in Children Enrolled in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science2 (2014): 752-758.
  42. Smith Earl L., et al. “Protective Effects of High Ambient Lighting on the Development of Form-Deprivation Myopia in Rhesus Monkeys”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science1 (2012): 421-428.
  43. Thomson Kate., et al. “Form-Deprivation and Lens-Induced Myopia Are Similarly Affected by Pharmacological Manipulation of the Dopaminergic System in Chicks”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science12 (2020): 4.
  44. London Douglas S and Bonnie Beezhold. “A Phytochemical-Rich Diet May Explain the Absence of Age-Related Decline in Visual Acuity of Amazonian Hunter-Gatherers in Ecuador”. Nutrition Research2 (2015): 107-117.
  45. Curtin B J. “The Myopias : Basic Science and Clinical Management”. Philadelphia : Harper and Row. (1985).
  46. Burton T C. “The Influence of Refractive Error and Lattice Degeneration on the Incidence of Retinal Detachment”. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society 87 (1989): 143-55; discussion 155-157.
  47. Wong Chee Wai., et al. “Is Choroidal or Scleral Thickness Related to Myopic Macular Degeneration?” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science2 (2017): 907-913.
  48. Balacco-Gabrieli C., et al. “Congenital Cataract and Evolutive Myopia. Relationship with Hypophyseal-Adrenal Cortical Axis Function”. Ophthalmic Paediatrics and Genetics1 (1986): 63-67.
  49. Jost B., et al. “Bruch’s Membrane Thickness in High Myopia”. Acta Ophthalmology (2014).
  50. Li Zhixi., et al. “Choroidal Thickness Predicts Progression of Myopic Maculopathy in High Myopes: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study”. The British Journal of Ophthalmology12 (2021): 1744-1750.
  51. Kobia-Acquah E. “Relationship between Choroidal Thickness, Axial Length, and Degree of Myopia in European Children”. Conference: Annual Meeting Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology ARVO, (2021).
  52. Shen Ling., et al. “Scleral and Choroidal Thickness in Secondary High Axial Myopia”. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)8 (2016): 1579-1585.
  53. Moriyama Muka., et al. “Morphology and Long-Term Changes of Choroidal Vascular Structure in Highly Myopic Eyes with and without Posterior Staphyloma”. Ophthalmology9 (2007).
  54. Mitchell Paul., et al. “Five-Year Incidence of Age-Related Maculopathy Lesions: The Blue Mountains Eye Study”. Ophthalmology6 (2002): 1092-1097.
  55. Ohno-Matsui K and T Tokoro. “The progression of lacquer cracks in pathologic myopia”. Retina1 (1996): 29-37.
  56. Flores-Moreno, Ignacio., et al. “The Relationship between Axial Length and Choroidal Thickness in Eyes with High Myopia”. American Journal of Ophthalmology2 (2013): 314-319.e1.
  57. Talbet A GEA J H. “Posterior Segment Manifestations of Pathological Myopia”. (2018).
  58. Tanaka Yuichiro., et al. “Extreme Thinning or Loss of Inner Neural Retina along the Staphyloma Edge in Eyes with Pathologic Myopia”. American Journal of Ophthalmology4 (2015): 677-682.
  59. Chihara Etsuo, et al. “Severe Myopia as a Risk Factor for Progressive Visual Field Loss in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma”. Ophthalmologica2 (1997): 66-71.
  60. Jonas Jost B., et al. “Retinal Thickness and Axial Length”. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science4 (2016): 1791.
  61. Vogel R. “Pharmaceutical Agents and the Prevention or Reduction of Progressive Myopia”. Acta OphthalmologicaS185 (2009): 134-138.
  62. Chia Audrey and Donald Tan. “Five-Year Clinical Trial on Atropine for the Treatment of Myopia 2 (ATOM 2): Myopia Control with Atropine 0.01% Eyedrops”. Ophthalmology (2016).
  63. Kok R., et al. “Implementation of Atropine Treatment for Progressive Myopia in Children”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science15 (2013).
  64. FDA FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION: Atropine.
  65. Liu Yan., et al. “Intraocular Pressure Changes during Accommodation in Progressing Myopes, Stable Myopes and Emmetropes”. PloS One10 (2015): e0141839.
  66. Gwiazda Jane., et al. “A Randomized Clinical Trial of Progressive Addition Lenses versus Single Vision Lenses on the Progression of Myopia in Children”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science4 (2003): 1492-1500.
  67. Smith Earl L. “Optical Treatment Strategies to Slow Myopia Progression: Effects of the Visual Extent of the Optical Treatment Zone”. Experimental Eye Research 114 (2013): 77-88.
  68. Smith Molly J and Jeffrey J Walline. “Controlling Myopia Progression in Children and Adolescents”. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics 6 (2015): 133-140.
  69. Edwards Marion Hastings., et al. “The Hong Kong Progressive Lens Myopia Control Study: Study Design and Main Findings”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science9 (2002): 2852-2858.
  70. Swarbrick Helen A., et al. “Myopia Control during Orthokeratology Lens Wear in Children Using a Novel Study Design”. Ophthalmology3 (2015): 620-630.
  71. Fan DS P., et al. “Astigmatism in Chinese Preschool Children: Prevalence, Change, and Effect on Refractive Development”. The British Journal of Ophthalmology7 (2004): 938-941.
  72. Smith E. “Effects of Long Wavelength Lighting on Refractive Development in Infant Rhesus Monkeys”. Visual Psychophysics and Physiological Optics 56 (2015).
  73. Raviola E and T N Wiesel. “Effect of Dark-Rearing on Experimental Myopia in Monkeys”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science6 (1978): 485-488.
  74. Wiesel ERTN. “Effect of dark-rearing on experimental myopia in monkeys”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 17 (1978): 485-488.

Citation

Citation: Satya M N K Maripi and Konala Sunaina Reddy. “Global Myopia: Theories Behind this Epidemic and how to Prevent Progression in Children".Acta Scientific Ophthalmology 6.12 (2023): 08-21.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 Satya M N K Maripi and Konala Sunaina Reddy. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
ISI- IF1.042
JCR- IF0.24

Indexed In




News and Events


Contact US