Acta Scientific Ophthalmology (ISSN: 2582-3191)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 5

Comparison of the Foreign Matter Removal Effect of Different Over-thecounter Eye Washing Methods

Azusa Uehara1*, Manabu Nozaki1 and Hiroshi Fujishima2

1Research and Development Department, Healthcare Division, Kobayashi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Ibaraki, Japan
2Department of Ophthalmology, Tsurumi University School of Dental Medicine, Yokohama, Japan

*Corresponding Author: Azusa Uehara, Research and Development Department, Healthcare Division, Kobayashi Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Ibaraki, Japan.

Received: March 16, 2023; Published: April 14, 2023


Purpose: Eye washing with artificial tears using over-the-counter (OTC) eyewash is a widespread method for preventing allergic conjunctival disease. More specifically, OTC eyewash is widely used to remove foreign matter from the surface of the eye and is expected to neutralise allergic symptomology in the eye, although confirmatory evidence is missing. While there are many methods for eye washing, only a handful of reports have examined the efficacy of each method to date. Within this context, our study aimed to compare the effects of cup-type and eye drop-type eyewash on the efficacy of foreign matter removal. 

Methods: Insoluble and soluble types of pseudo-foreign matter, imitating PM2.5 and pollen, were instilled into the eyes of rabbits and humans for the verification tests conducted herein. After the pseudo-foreign matter was instilled, eye washing was performed with both methods, and the residual amount of foreign matter associated with each methodology was measured. 

Results: In the washing test using insoluble foreign matter in rabbits, the concentration of foreign matter in the recovered solution was statistically significantly lower in the eye washing groups than in the non-eye washing group, regardless of the size of the foreign matter. When applying the eye drop-type eyewash, the mean foreign matter concentration decreased as the volume of the drops increased. In the washing test using water-soluble foreign matter conducted in humans, the percentage of residual foreign matter after washing the anterior eye decreased as the volume of the eye drops was increased in the eye drop-type eyewash group. This was similar to the test conducted with insoluble foreign matter in rabbits; however, in the lower eyelid conjunctiva, the residual rate was statistically significantly lower in the cup-type eye washing group than in the six eye drop washing group (38.0% ± 30.8% and 73.0% ± 33.6%).

Conclusion: These results indicate that cup-type eyewash is more effective than eye drops in removing foreign matter from the conjunctiva of the lower eyelid in humans.  Pending confirmation in future research, these results suggest that cup-type eyewash is highly effective in removing foreign matter regardless of particle size.

 Keywords: Cup-type Eyewash; Drop-type Eyewash; Foreign Matter Removal; Over-the-counter Drugs; PM2.5; Pollen


  1. Welfare Science Council Disease Control Committee (Japan), Rheumatism and Allergy Countermeasure Committee. Rheumatism and Allergy Countermeasures Committee Report (2011).
  2. Mimura T. “Influence of PM2.5 and Asian dust on allergic conjunctivitis”. Allergy in Practice 35 (2015): 35-38.
  3. Yamana Y., et al. “Allergic conjunctivitis”. Allergy in Practice 558 (2021): 704-710.
  4. Miyazaki D., et al. “Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of allergic conjunctival disease (3rd edition)”. Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology 125 (2021): 741-785
  5. Santo Y., et al. “Examination of the safety and usefulness of eye washing with a dedicated eye washing cup in ‘the role of eye washing and protection against pollen and Asian dust”. Allergy in Practice 500 (2017): 567573.
  6. Yazu H., et al. “Efficacy and safety of an eye wash solution in allergic conjunctivitis after conjunctival allergen challenge”. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 5 (2016): 565-566.
  7. Ko R., et al. “Correlation between acute conjunctivitis and Asian dust on ocular surfaces”. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health A8 (2016): 367-375.
  8. Mimura T., et al. “Efficacy of eyewash for eye allergic symptoms”. Ganka 61 (2019): 1437-1449.
  9. Mimura T., et al. “Minimal essential of eye allergy treatment 5: associations with eye diseases induced by PM2.5 and Asian dust”. Allergy in Practice 473 (2015): 645-648.
  10. Watanabe K. “Effect of eyewash on corneal epithelium”. Folia Ophthalmologica Japonica 51 (2000): 32-36.
  11. Iwashita M., et al. “Effect of eyewash solution (commercial washing solution) on the corneal epithelium: adverse effects of benzalkonium chloride on the eye surface”. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 3 (2016): 571.
  12. Yazu H., et al. “The effect of long-term use of an eyewash solution on the ocular surface mucin layer”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20 (2019): 5078.
  13. Saeki T., et al. “Long-term effects of eyewash solution use on the conjunctival bacterial flora”. Acta Scientific Ophthalmology1 (2021): 27-42.
  14. Sakane Y., et al. “Development and validation of the Dry Eye-Related Quality-of-Life Score questionnaire”. JAMA Ophthalmology 131 (2013): 1331-1338.
  15. Matsubara M. “A statistical review of conjunctival foreign body”. Japanese Review of Clinical Ophthalmology 6 (1996): 721-726.
  16. Fukagawa K. “Effects of rabbit tears and eye drops on rupture of the outer wall of Japanese cedar pollen and elution of antigen from Japanese cedar pollen particles”. Allergology and Immunology 17 (2010): 284-289.
  17. Tanaka M., et al. “Effects of over-the-counter eyewash products on cedar pollen wall rupture”. Japan Journal of Medicine 3 (2020): 470-474.


Citation: Azusa Uehara., et al. “Comparison of the Foreign Matter Removal Effect of Different Over-the counter Eye Washing Methods".Acta Scientific Ophthalmology 6.5 (2023): 11-20.


Copyright: © 2023 Azusa Uehara., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
ISI- IF1.042
JCR- IF0.24

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US