Acta Scientific Ophthalmology (ISSN: 2582-3191)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 4

Contact Lens as Evidence in Crime Scene - A Way to Identify Gender

Manisai Koduri1*, Pravallika Vataparthi2, Nikhila Bolleda3, Vijaya Laxmi Golla3, Sravani Mereddy4, Sony Gunaganti1

1Former Assistant Professor, Department of Optometry, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh, India
2Assistant Professor, Department of Forensic Science, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh, India
3Bachelor Student, Department of Optometry, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh, India
4Assistant Professor and Head of the Department, Department of Optometry, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh, India

*Corresponding Author: Manisai Koduri, Former Assistant Professor, Department of Optometry, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Vizianagaram, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Received: February 13, 2023; Published: March 30, 2023

Abstract

Introduction: Identifying Barr bodies' presence has a significant diagnostic value in multifaceted science disciplines. Testing Barr bodies was important in diagnosing infertility, a syndromic association such as Klinefelter and psychopathic disorders, and disorders of sex development (DSD). It also plays a role in cancer detection in the uterine cervix, identifying transplanted retinal pigment epithelium in porcine models. Identifying the gender of victims or criminals becomes a fundamental requirement in any forensic analysis of a crime scene. The current study hypothesizes identifying the gender using Barr body detection from collected contact lens samples and tries to establish disposed soft contact lenses to consider as evidence found at the crime scene.

Methods: A total of 120 (60 males and 60 females) were included in the study; from each subject, contact lens and Buccal samples were collected using sterile wooden toothpicks and soft contact lenses after insertion and removal. Both the buccal and contact lens samples were built into two smears staining with Saffranine and Methylene blue stains. The smears underwent cytological assessment by two examiners using a binocular microscope at 40X. The details of findings were graded on a scale of 1 to 5 based on visualization of Barr bodies seen.

Results: The mean rank and median grading scores for higher using saffranine among females across both the samples. The sensitivity is higher at 100% for both the stains among contact lens samples, and specificity is higher among buccal samples, 93% for saffranine and 90% for methylene blue.

Conclusion: Overall, it is conspicuous that contact lenses can be considered as evidence found at the crime scene in identifying the gender using Barr body detection.

 Keywords: Barr Bodies; Contact Lens; Crime Scene; Saffranine; Sex Determination

References

  1. Mittwoch U. “Barr Bodies and their Relation to Nuclear Size”. Cytogenetic and Genome Research1 (1964): 62-74.
  2. Anoop UR., et al. “Role of Barr bodies obtained from oral smears in the determination of sex”. Indian Journal of Dental Research 1 (2004): 5-7.
  3. Hong B., et al. “Identification of an autoimmune serum containing antibodies against the Barr body”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 15 (2001): 8703-8708.
  4. BARR ML and BERTRAM EG. “A morphological distinction between neurones of the male and female, and the behaviour of the nucleolar satellite during accelerated nucleoprotein synthesis”. Nature 4148 (1949): 676.
  5. PANSEGRAU DG and PETERSON RE. “Improved staining of sex chromatin. ninety-seven and six tenths per cent of female buccal cells chromatin-positive”. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 41 (1964): 266-272.
  6. Hatakeyama C., et al. “The dynamics of X-inactivation skewing as women age”. Clinical Genetics4 (2004): 327-332.
  7. Rego A., et al. “The facultative heterochromatin of the inactive X chromosome has a distinctive condensed ultrastructure”. Journal of Cell Science7 (2008): 1119-1127.
  8. MITTWOCH U., et al. “BARR bodies in triploid cells”. Cytogenetics 2 (1963): 323-330.
  9. Kulkarni MK., et al. “Do the presence of Barr bodies in male jail inmates indicates criminality: A pilot study”. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology 1 (2016): 11-15.
  10. Jones Z., et al. “Definitive identification of transplanted porcine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with barr body staining”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science4 (1997): S336.
  11. Ritchie R., et al. “Intersex and the Olympic Games”. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 8 (2008): 395-399.
  12. Elsas LJ., et al. “Gender verification of female athletes”. Genetic Medicine4 (2000): 249-254.
  13. Srivastava A., et al. “Mass Disaster: Identification of Victims with Special Emphasis on Dental Evidences”. Journal of Indian Academy of Forensic Medicine2 (2015): 190.
  14. Ramakrishnan K., et al. “Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review”. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences 7 (2015): S398-402.
  15. Pittayapat P., et al. “Forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification process”. Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology 1 (2012): 1-12.
  16. Bhardwaj N., et al. “BARR bodies- a spoonful of sex chromatin”. International Journal of Current Medical and Pharmaceutical Research 1 (2022): 4939-4942.
  17. Liu HY., et al. “Polymerase Chain Reaction and Its Application in the Diagnosis of Infectious Keratitis”. Medical Hypothesis Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology3 (2019): 152-155.
  18. Nagamori H., et al. “Sex determination from buccal mucosa and hair root by the combined treatment of quinacrine staining and the fluorescent Feulgen reaction using a single specimen”. Forensic Science International 2 (1986): 119-128.
  19. Soe Htun., et al. “Gender determination from barr bodies using giemsa and methylene blue stains in buccal mucosal smears”. (2017).
  20. Chadwick BP. “Characterization of chromatin at structurally abnormal inactive X chromosomes reveals potential evidence of a rare hybrid active and inactive isodicentric X chromosome”. Chromosome Research2 (2020): 155-169.
  21. Fran Cois J., et al. “Male and female sex determination in hair roots”. Clinical Genetics2 (1971): 73-77.
  22. Mimasaka S., et al. “Sudden death of a young woman due to aortic dissection caused by Turner's syndrome". Pathology International4 (2007): 219-223.
  23. Datar U., et al. “Cytological assessment of Barr bodies using aceto-orcein and papanicolaou stains in buccal mucosal smears and their sex estimation efficacy in an Indian sample”. Acta Cytology5 (2013): 516-521.
  24. Aziz NZ., et al. “Efficacy of acridine orange and papanicolaou stains in sex determination using barr bodies in buccal smears: A comparative study”. International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research1 (2019): 7.
  25. Mittal T., et al. “Sex determination from buccal mucosa scrapes”. International Journal of Legal Medicine 5 (2009): 437-440.
  26. Archana T., et al. “Cytological assessment of Barr body in buccal scrapes: A comparative study”. Journal of Pierre Fauchard Academy (India Section)1 (2017): 9-13.
  27. Vataparthi P., et al. “Sex Estimation Efficacy of Saffranine and Methylene Blue in Cytological Assessment of Barr bodies: A Comparative Study”. NeuroQuantology 8 (2022): 6019-6028.
  28. Sandoval C., et al. “Dental Pulp Fibroblast and Sex Determination in Controlled Burial Conditions”. International Journal of Morphology2 (2014): 537-541.
  29. Kaur N., et al. “Buccal Barr bodies: Accuracy and reliability in sex determination”. Saudi Journal of Oral and Dental Research (SJODR) 2 (2017): 168-173.
  30. Singh S., et al. “Special Stains to Disclose Barr Bodies in Buccal Scrape for Gender Determination in Forensic Science”. International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research3 (2017): 777-780.

Citation

Citation: Manisai Koduri., et al. “Contact Lens as Evidence in Crime Scene - A Way to Identify Gender".Acta Scientific Ophthalmology 6.4 (2023): 50-58.

Copyright

Copyright: © 2023 Manisai Koduri., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Metrics

Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
ISI- IF1.042
JCR- IF0.24

Indexed In




News and Events


  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 20, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US