Acta Scientific Ophthalmology (ISSN: 2582-3191)

Review Article Volume 6 Issue 3

Various Ocular Problems Associated with the Use of the Digital Screen: A Narrative Review

MD Masihuzzaman1*, Aashish Pandeya2 and Gaurav Kumar Bhardwaj3

1Assistant Professor, Department of Optometry and Vision Science, Amity Medical School, Amity University Haryana, India
2M. Optom Student, Department of Optometry and Vision Science, Amity Medical School, Amity University Haryana, India
3Associate Professor & Head, Department of Optometry and Vision Science, Amity Medical School, Amity University, Haryana, India

*Corresponding Author: MD Masihuzzaman, Assistant Professor, Department of Optometry and Vision Science, Amity Medical School, Amity University Haryana, India.

Received: January 09, 2023; Published: February 07, 2023


The study's objectives were to evaluate the various ocular symptoms on a digital screen, develop healthcare recommendations to lessen user eye discomfort, and contribute to the development of digital devices that are less likely to cause visual and ocular pain in general users. A review of reports released between 2001 and 2022 was finished, and a literature search utilizing PubMed, Google Scholar, and original articles released up until January was conducted. The terms "Digital display screen”, "Blue blocking filters”, "Digital eye strain”, and "Video display terminal" were utilized as keywords. We searched for papers on the impact of binocular vision using the terms "accommodation”, "convergence”, "vergence”, and "phoria." To identify the impact on the ocular surface, the phrases "tear film”, "blink rate”, "blink amplitude”, "blinking”, "dry eye”, "tear function”, "tear amount”, and "tear break-up time" were employed, the research on digital screen use conclusively reveals a rise in ocular and visual symptoms like headaches, eyestrain, dry eyes, irritated eyes and one of the reasons being is incomplete blinking. It is unknown if using several devices has a higher impact on the visual system and ocular surface, and it is also unclear how switching between screens would affect accommodation and vergence.

Keywords: Video Display Terminal (VDT); Accommodation; Fusional Vergence; Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS)


  1. Bababekova Y., et al. “Font Size and Viewing Distance of Handheld Smart Phones” (2011).
  2. Kang JW., et al. “A comparison of accommodation and ocular discomfort change according to display size of smart devices”. BMC Ophthalmology1 (2021).
  3. Porcar E., et al. “Symptomatic accommodative and binocular dysfunctions from the use of flat-panel displays”. International Journal of Ophthalmology3 (2018): 501-505.
  4. Jaiswal S., et al. “Ocular and visual discomfort associated with smartphones, tablets and computers: what we do and do not know”. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 5 (2019): 463-477.
  5. De-Hita-Cantalejo C., et al. “Accommodative and binocular disorders in preteens with computer vision syndrome: a cross-sectional study”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1 (2021): 73-81.
  6. Golebiowski B., et al. “Smartphone Use and Effects on Tear Film, Blinking and Binocular Vision”. Current Eye Research 4 (2020): 428-434.
  7. Usgaonkar U., et al. “Impact of the use of digital devices on eyes during the lockdown period of COVID-19 pandemic”. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology7 (2021): 1901-1906.
  8. Palavets T and Rosenfield M. “Blue-blocking Filters and Digital Eyestrain”. Optometry and Vision Science 1 (2019): 48-54.
  9. Redondo B., et al. “Effects of a blue-blocking screen filter on accommodative accuracy and visual discomfort”. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics6 (2020): 790-800.
  10. Maducdoc MM., et al. “Visual consequences of electronic reader use: a pilot study”. International Ophthalmology2 (2017): 433-439.
  11. Page MJ., et al. “PRISMA 2020 explanation and elaboration: Updated guidance and exemplars for reporting systematic reviews”. The BMJ 372 (2021).
  12. Doughty MJ. “Consideration of Three Types of Spontaneous Eyeblink Activity in Normal Humans: During Reading and Video Display Terminal Use, in Primary Gaze, and While in Conversation (2001).
  13. Hirota M., et al. “Effect of Incomplete Blinking on Tear Film Stability”.
  14. Portello JK., et al. “Blink Rate, Incomplete Blinks and Computer Vision Syndrome” 90 (2013).
  15. Chu CA., et al. “Blink Patterns: Reading from a Computer Screen versus Hard Copy” 91 (2014).
  16. Uchino M., et al. “Prevalence of dry eye disease and its risk factors in visual display terminal users: The Osaka study”. American Journal of Ophthalmology 4 (2013).
  17. Kim DJ., et al. “Visual Fatigue Induced by Viewing a Tablet Computer with a High-resolution Display”. Korean Journal of Ophthalmology 5 (2017): 388-393.
  18. Yazici A., et al. “Change in tear film characteristics in visual display terminal users”. European Journal of Ophthalmology2 (2014): 85-89.
  19. Zamani Shahri R., et al. “Study of Lag of Accommodation After Using a Smartphone”. Function and Disability Journal1 (2021): 38-38.
  20. Park M., et al. “Changes in Accommodative Function of Young Adults in their Twenties following Smartphone Use”. Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society2 (2014): 253-260.
  21. Hue JE., et al. “Reading from electronic devices versus hardcopy text”. Work3 (2014): 303-307.
  22. Asakawa K., et al. “The Effects of Chewing Gum in Preventing Eyestrain”. Biomed Research International 2020 (2020).
  23. Padavettan C., et al. “Changes in vergence and accommodation parameters after smartphone use in healthy adults”. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology6 (2021): 1487-1490.
  24. Lee HS., et al. “Acute acquired comitant esotropia related to excessive Smartphone use”. BMC Ophthalmology 1 (2016).
  25. García-Muñoz Á., et al. “Accommodative and binocular dysfunctions: prevalence in a randomised sample of university students”. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 4 (2016): 313-321.


Citation: MD Masihuzzaman., et al. “Various Ocular Problems Associated with the Use of the Digital Screen: A Narrative Review".Acta Scientific Ophthalmology 6.3 (2023): 07-21.


Copyright: © 2022 MD Masihuzzaman., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
ISI- IF1.042
JCR- IF0.24

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is June 25, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US