Acta Scientific Ophthalmology (ISSN: 2582-3191)

Research Article Volume 6 Issue 2

Refractive Errors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Ragni Kumari1, Kavindra Pratap Singh2, Salai Dhavamathi Janarthananan3, Mrinal Ranjan Srivastava4*, Pragati Garg5 and Rajiv Janardhanan6

1Assistant Professor, Department of optometry, Era University, Lucknow, India
2Lecturer, Department of Radio Imaging, Era University, Lucknow, India
3Assistant Professor, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manglore, Karnataka, India
4Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Dumka Medical College, Dumka, India
5Professor and Head, Department Of Ophthalmology, Era University, Lucknow, India
6Professor and Head, Institute of Public Health, Amity University, Noida, India

*Corresponding Author: Mrinal Ranjan Srivastava, Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Dumka Medical College, Dumka, India.

Received: September 29, 2022; Published: January 24, 2023


Purpose: A community-based study was conducted to identify the extent of prevalence of refractive errors among the type 2 diabetic population in Lucknow. 

Methods: A total of 437 patients (> 40 years old) with type 2 diabetes were examined with a complete eye screening tests including objective auto refraction. Spherical equivalent refractions of both eyes were reported. Data collected include age, gender, general medical information and serum biochemistry. 

Results: The mean refraction was −0.84 ± 2.59 D. Prevalence rates were determined for astigmatism (63.8%) hyperopia (1.4%) and myopia (0.2%%). 34.6% patients were emmatropic. Age is an important factor for all of the refractive errors. Correlation showed that every increase of one year of age and one percent of HbA1c is associated with 0.05 D (p = 0.003) and 0.14D (p = 0.04) shift in hyperopia, respectively.

Conclusions: This study provides epidemiological data on refractive errors in a North indian population in Lucknow, India. The Astigmatism prevalence is higher than the reported rates in the diabetic population compare to hyperopia and myopia. Second major finding was emmatropia.

Keywords: Refractive Errors; Type 2 Diabetes; Prevalence; Community-based Study


  1. Huntjens B and O’Donnell C. “Refractive error changes in Diabetes Mellitus”. Optometry in Practice3 (2006): 103-114.
  2. Da Costa J. “Medical Diagnosis”. 7th Philadelphia, J.B Lippincott (1890).
  3. Duke-Elder S. "Changes in refraction in diabetes mellitus”. British Journal of Ophthalmology 9 (1925): 167-187.
  4. Fledelius HC. "Is myopia getting more frequent? A cross-sectional study of 1416 Danes aged 16 years+". Acta Ophthalmologica (Copenh)4 (1983): 545-559.
  5. Fledelius HC. "Myopia and diabetes mellitus with special reference to adult-onset myopia”. Acta Ophthalmologica (Copenh)1 (1986): 33-38.
  6. Fledelius HC. "Refractive change in diabetes mellitus around onset or when poorly controlled. A clinical study”. Acta Ophthalmologica (Copenh)1 (1987): 53-57.
  7. Fledelius HC and Miyamoto K. "Diabetic myopia - is it lens-induced? An oculometric study comprising ultrasound measurements”. Acta Ophthalmologica (Copenh)4 (1987): 469-473.
  8. Mantyjarvi M. "Myopia and diabetes. A review”. Acta Ophthalmologica 185 (1988): 82-85.
  9. Shristi Shrestha and Khem Raj Kaini. “Refractive errors in type II diabetic patients Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal”. Journal of Universal College of Medical Sciences3 (2015).
  10. Rani PK., et al. “Prevalence of refractive errors and associated risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus SN-DREAMS, report 18”. Ophthalmology 6 (2010): 1155-1162.
  11. Shih-Jen., et al. “Prevalence and Associated Factors of Refractive Errors Among Type 2 Diabetics in Kinmen, Taiwan”. 15.1 (2008): 2-9.
  12. Mwale C., et al. “Refractive errors in type 2 diabetic patients”. East African Medical Journal6 (2007): 259-260.
  13. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. Hypoglycemia, Department of Health and Human Services. National Institute of Health (2003).
  14. Mantyjarvi M and Nousiainen I. "Refraction and accommodation in diabetic school children”. Acta Ophthalmologica (Copenh)3 (1988): 267-271.


Citation: Mrinal Ranjan Srivastava., et al. “Refractive Errors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients".Acta Scientific Ophthalmology 6.2 (2023): 34-39.


Copyright: © 2022 Mrinal Ranjan Srivastava., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
ISI- IF1.042
JCR- IF0.24

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is May 30, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US