Acta Scientific Ophthalmology (ISSN: 2582-3191)

Research Article Volume 5 Issue 9

Electrophysiological Study After Levodopa in Amblyopic Eyes

Mona Abdelkader*, Sameh Saleh and Ayman Fawzy

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt

*Corresponding Author: Mona Abdelkader, Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt.

Received: August 01, 2022; Published: August 24, 2022


Purpose: To study the clinical and electrophysiological changes after Levodopa in amblyopic eyes.

Methods: Fifty patients with amblyopia (20 hypermetropic anisometropia and 20 myopic anisometropic amblyopia, 10 astigmatic amblyopic) were included in this study, Levodopa was administered daily for 6 weeks associated with occlusion therapy and visual training. The drug was stopped and patients continued on occlusion therapy associated with visual training for another 6 weeks. Then gradual reduction of occlusion time and visual training was performed for a another 6 weeks, and finally all treatments were stopped for 6 weeks. Visual acuity and visual evoked potentials (VEP), including both multifocal VEP (MFVEP) and Pattern VEP (PVEP) were recorded before the treatment, at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24 weeks after beginning of treatment.

Results: Significant improvement of visual acuity (mean 0.50), with stabilization at the end of the 6th week associated with improved PVEP and MFVEP parameters was reported. Stabilization of the visual improvement after stoppage the treatment without any deterioration of vision or VEP parameters.

Conclusion: Improved visual acuity with stabilization can be achieved with combined Levodopa, occlusion and visual training therapy confirmed with VEP improvement.

Keywords: Amblyopia; Eye; Visual Evoked Responses (VEP)


  1. Barrett BT., et al. “Understanding the neural basis of amblyopia”. Neuroscientist 10 (2004): 106-117.
  2. Mintz-Hittner HA and Fernandez KM. “Successful amblyopia therapy initiated after age 7 years : compliance cures”. Archives of Ophthalmology 118 (2000): 1535-1541.
  3. Kiorpes L. “Visual processing in amblyopia: animal studies”. Strabismus 14 (2006): 3-10.
  4. Lonngi M., et al. “Spectral domain optical coherence tomographic angiography in children with amblyopia”. JAMA Ophthalmology 35 (2017): 1086-1091.
  5. Liu CH., et al. “Macular thickness, foveal volume and choroidal thickness in amblyopic eyes and their relationships to the treatment outcome”. Journal of Ophthalmology 6 (2018): 1967621.
  6. Borrelli E., et al. “Increased choriocapillaris vessel density in amblyopic children: a case-control study”. Journal of AAPOS 22 (2018): 366-370.
  7. Gaier ED., et al. “Imaging Amblyopia: Insights from Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)”. Seminar on Ophthalmology 34 (2019): 303-311.
  8. Simon JW., et al. “A new visual evoked potential system for vision screening in infants and young children”. JAAPOS 86 (2004): 549-554.
  9. Hamurcu M., et al. “Electrophysiologic evaluation of amblyopia”. Eye Care Vision 1 (2017): 1-4.
  10. Hamurcu M., et al. “Evaluation of amblyopic eyes with optical coherence tomography angiography and electrophysiological tests”. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 69 (2021): 105-110.
  11. Zele AJ., et al. “Anisometropic Amblyopia Spatial Contrast Sensitivity Deficits in Inferred Magnocellular and Parvocellular Vision”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 48 (2007): 3622-3631.
  12. Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. “A randomized pilot study of near activities versus non- near activities during patching therapy for amblyopia”. JAAPOS 9 (2005): 129-136.
  13. Buonomano DV and Merzenicch MM. “Cortical plasticity: form synapses to maps”. Annual Review of Neuroscience 21 (1998): 149-186.
  14. Leguire L E., et al. “Long-term follow-up of L-dopa treatment in children with amblyopia”. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 39 (2002): 326-330.
  15. Gottlob I., et al. “Visual acuity and scotomas after one week levodopa administration in human amblyopia”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 33 (1992): 2722-2728.
  16. Leguire L E., et al. “Levodopa and childhood amblyopia”. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 29 (1982): 290-298.
  17. Leguire LE., et al. “Levodopa\carbidopa for childhood amblyopia”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 34 (1993): 3090-3095.
  18. Leguire L E., et al. “Levodopa\carbidopa treatment of amblyopia in older children”. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 32 (1995): 143-151.
  19. Levartovsky S., et al. “Factors affecting the long term results of successfully treated amblyopia”. British Journal of Ophthalmology 79 (1995): 225-228.
  20. Pandey P K., et al. “Effect of levodopa and carpidopa in human amblyopia”. Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus 39 (2002): 81-89.
  21. Yang CI., et al. “Functional MRI of amblyopia before and after levodopa”. Neuroscience Letter 339 (2003): 49-52.
  22. Rutstein RP and Fuhr PS. “Efficacy and stability of amblyopia therapy”. Optometry and Vision Science 69 (1992): 747-754.
  23. Caloroso EE and Rouse MW. “Clinical management of strabismus”. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann ch.7 (1993): 113-125.
  24. Yu M., et al. “Investigation of multifocal visual evoked potentials in anisometropic and esotropic amblyopes”. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 39 (1998): 2033-2040.
  25. Levi DM and Li RW. “Improving the performance of the amblyopic visual system”. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 364 (2009): 399-397.


Citation: Mona Abdelkader., et al. “Electrophysiological Study After Levodopa in Amblyopic Eyes".Acta Scientific Ophthalmology 5.9 (2022): 33-40.


Copyright: © 2022 Mona Abdelkader., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acceptance rate35%
Acceptance to publication20-30 days
ISI- IF1.042
JCR- IF0.24

Indexed In

News and Events

  • Certification for Review
    Acta Scientific certifies the Editors/reviewers for their review done towards the assigned articles of the respective journals.
  • Submission Timeline for Upcoming Issue
    The last date for submission of articles for regular Issues is July 10, 2024.
  • Publication Certificate
    Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" as a mark of appreciation for publishing their work.
  • Best Article of the Issue
    The Editors will elect one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of this article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue"
  • Welcoming Article Submission
    Acta Scientific delightfully welcomes active researchers for submission of articles towards the upcoming issue of respective journals.

Contact US